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Did Henry VII have a defensive or attacking foreign policy?

(‘Throughout his reign Henry VII’s foreign policy was defensive’ - John Guy)
Trying to maintain peace with foreign powers not wage war
(‘He was more inclined to peace than war’ - Polydore Vergil)


What were Henry VII’s main foreign policy aims?

Henry VII Sought Real Power
- SECURITY (England was a minor power + he was vulnerable)
- RECOGNITION (From superpowers: France, Spain, HRE)
- PROSPERITY (Through trade + pensions)


What are the foreign powers we need to consider (listed in order of increasing power)?

- Ireland
- Scotland
- Brittany
- Burgundy
- Spain
- Holy Roman Empire
- France


What was Brittany + who was ruling it at start of Henry VII’s reign?

- A fiefdom (area of feudal rule) in France
- Ruled by Duke Francis II


What were the main aspects of Henry VII’s foreign policy in Brittany + France?

- Truce (1485-1489)
- Anti-French Alliance (1489) + Treaty of Redon (1489) + Breton Crisis (1487-91)
- Treaty of Etaples (1492)
- The Holy League (1496)
- League of Cambrai (1508)


When was the Breton Crisis?



What was the Breton Crisis?

- France wanted to absorb the Duchy of Brittany, but Brittany wanted to remain independent
- Duke Francis died in 1488, leaving only female heir Duchess Anne, providing opportunity for French to seize power


Who became the leader of Burgundy after Duke Francis II died in 1488?

Duchess Anne


Who was the leader of France at the start of Henry VII’s reign?

Charles VIII


What was Henry VII’s approach to the Breton Crisis?

Wanted to support Brittany in remaining independent


Why did Henry VII want to support Brittany in the Breton Crisis?

- To repay them from harbouring him during exile
- To decrease the power/threat of the French (as they would then control all of channel border apart from Calais)
- To please other foreign powers supporting Brittany


Which foreign powers backed Brittany during the Breton Crisis?

- England/Henry VII
- Spain/King Ferdinand (wanted to reduce French power)
- Holy Roman Empire/Maximilian I (married to Anne by-proxy in 1490)

(Brittany, England, Spain, HRE - Signed 1489 Anti-French Alliance)


What is marriage-by-proxy?

Marriage when one or both of the partners are not present


How did Henry VII support Brittany during the Breton Crisis?

Treaty of Redon (1489)
- Between Henry VII + Duchess Anne (Brittany)
- Henry VII: would send 6000 troops to defend Brittany against French
- Duchess Anne: would pay Henry


What was the result of the Breton Crisis?

- In 1491 Anne surrendered to the French + married Charles VIII
- Brittany no longer had independence
- English troops marooned in Brittany
- Maximilian lost his marriage-by-proxy


Why did Duchess Anne surrender to Charles VIII in the Breton Crisis?

Feared the outcome of persistent resistance to the French


What did Henry VII do after the Breton Crisis regarding relations with France? Why?

- In 1492 he invaded France (Bolougne) with 26,000 men
- Knew that Charles VIII was preoccupied with Italy, so would seek peace


What was the result of the 1492 French invasion?

Treaty of Etaples (1492)
- Between Henry VII + Charles VIII (France)
- Henry VII: would withdraw troops from Brittany + France
- Charles VIII: would refund invasion (annual pension of 50,000 crowns - as in 1475 Treaty of Picquigny)+ would stop harbouring pretenders (Warbeck)


What countries did Henry VII immediately sign truces with upon his accession?

France: 1485, 1 year truce, extended to 1489
Scotland: 1486, 3 year truce to 1489


Was Henry VII’s foreign policy regarding Brittany + France successful?

- Initial failure: despite having truce with France, this was only temporary + Henry immediately ruined relations by joining the Anti-French Alliance (1489) + supporting Brittany in the Breton Crisis, which wasn’t even successful
- Became successful after 1492: gained security from France + pension via Treaty of Etaples, never had issues with France after 1492 (despite joining 1496 Holy League)
- At very end of reign: slight threat from not being included in League of Cambrai superpower alliance (1508)


Why did Henry VII have some doubts about supporting Brittany in the Breton Crisis?

- Had a truce with France until 1489
- Brittany was in the weaker position
- France were very powerful, potential for diplomatic isolation if he upset them


What was the Holy League? When was it? How did it affect England’s relationship with France?

Holy League (1496)
- Alliance of France’s rivals during the Italian Wars
- Despite joining it, England remained neutral in the Italian Wars
- Did not negatively affect England’s stable relationship with France


What was the League of Cambrai? When was it? How did it affect England’s relationship with France, Spain + Holy Roman Empire?

League of Cambrai (1508)
- Between: Papacy (Pope Julius II), HRE (Maximilian I), France (Louis XII), Spain (Ferdinand)
- Alliance
- Henry was excluded
- Suggested that although he didn’t have a bad relationship with any powers (other than Spain), he wasn’t completely secure + unthreatened


What were the main aspects of Henry VII’s foreign policy in Burgundy, the Netherlands + the Holy Roman Empire?

- Trade embargo (1493-6)
- Intercursus Magnus (1496)
- Treaty of Windsor + Intercursus Malus (1506)
- League of Cambrai (1508)


Who was the leader of Burgundy, Netherlands + Holy Roman Empire at start of Henry VII’s reign?

Burgundy + Netherlands: Under control of Margaret of Burgundy (after Charles the Bold died in 1477), protected by Maximilian I (married Margaret’s stepdaughter Mary of Burgundy in 1477)

Holy Roman Empire: Under control of Maximilian I after he was elected in 1486


What was the Holy Roman Empire?

Loose federation of approx 300 states (in modern Germany) controlled by the elected Holy Roman Emperor


From what family was the Holy Roman Empire almost always from?

Habsburg dynasty (Austrian family)


Who was Maximilian I?

- Part of Habsburg dynasty
- Married Mary of Burgundy (1477), gaining lots of responsibility for Burgundy + Netherlands
- Elected Holy Roman Emperor (1486)
- Became Holy Roman Emperor (1493)
- Gave away his power over Burgundy + Netherlands to son Phillip (1494)


Who was Phillip of Burgundy?

- Son of Maximilian I
- Given control of Burgundy + Netherlands (1494)
- Married Joanna of Castile (1496) so he became Phillip of Castile
- Died 1506


Who was in control of Burgundy, Netherlands + Holy Roman Empire at end of Henry VII’s reign?

Burgundy + Netherlands: Control passed to Phillip in 1494

Holy Roman Empire: Continued to be controlled by Maximilian I


Who was Margaret of Burgundy?

- Married to Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy)
- Became leader of Burgundy after his death in 1477
- Yorkist (sister of Ed IV + R.III) (harboured pretenders)


Why did Burgundy not like the French?

France wanted to annex Burgundy


What was the Trade Embargo with Burgundy (1493-6) + why did it happen?

Trade embargo with Burgundy (1493-6)
- England would not trade with Burgundy
- Henry VII wanted to cut off Margaret of Burgundy’s support for pretenders that was threatening his domestic security


Which pretenders did Margaret of Burgundy support?

Lambert Simnell
(Gave 2000 mercenaries for the Battle of Stoke)

Perkin Warbeck
(Welcomed him + supposedly trained him in Yorkist mannerisms)


What was most important to Henry VII? Give evidence

SECURITY (not prosperity)

- E.g. Willing to cut off important trade with Burgundy (Antwerp was essential for cloth trade) because they were supporting pretenders which threatened domestic security


Did the trade embargo with Burgundy work?

Yes - Intercursus Magnus ended support of pretenders


What was the Intercursus Magnus (1496)?

Intercursus Magnus (1496)
- Between: England + Burgundy
- England: end the trade embargo with Burgundy (apart from Flanders)
- Burgundy: recognise Henry VII as true monarch + stop harbouring pretenders


Why were the Netherlands +Burgundy so important for trade?

- Important for cloth trade
- Essential ports for the export of English cloth to Europe, e.g Antwerp


When did Margaret of Burgundy die?



What circumstance allowed Henry VII to negotiate the Treaty of Windsor + Intercursus Malus with Phillip?

Phillip + Joanna shipwrecked in England in 1506


What was the Treaty of Windsor (1506)?

Treaty of Windsor (1506)
- Between: Henry VII + Phillip of Castile
- England: support Phillip + Joanna’s claim to the Spanish throne in the Castilian Succession Crisis, Henry VII potentially marry Phillip’s sister Margaret Dower Duchess of Savoy
- Phillip: hand over Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk
- Both: also negotiate the Intercursus Malus


What was the Intercursus Malus (1506)?

Intercursus Malus (1506)
- Between: Henry VII + Phillip
- Trading aspect of the Treaty of Windsor
- Aimed to improve trade to benefit English merchants
- Never ratified


When was the Intercursus Magnus ratified?



When was the Intercursus Malus ratified?



Was Henry VII’s foreign policy regarding Burgundy, Netherlands + Holy Roman Empire successful?

- In short term: unsuccessful, as England suffered economic losses (from 3 yr trade embargo + lending money to leaders)
- In long term: successful, gained recognition from leaders, stopped harbouring of pretenders + regained the threat Edmund de la Pole
- At very end of reign: slight threat from not being included in League of Cambrai superpower alliance (1508)


Give evidence that Henry VII lent money to the leaders of Burgundy/Netherlands/HRE?

1505: Lent Phillip of Castile £138,000
1505-09: Lent Habsburgs £342,000


What were the main aspects of Henry VII’s foreign policy in Spain?

- Treaty of Medina del Campo (1489)
- Marriage of Arthur + Catherine (1501)
- Death of Arthur + proposal for Catherine’s new marriage to Henry (1502)
- Death of Isabella + start of Castilian Succession Crisis (1504)
- Treaty of Windsor + Phillip’s death + end of Castilian Succession Crisis with Ferdinand the successor (1506)
- League of Cambrai (1508)


Who was the leader of Spain at the start of Henry VII’s reign?

- Spain was divided into 2 kingdoms
- Most important kingdoms (Aragon + Castile) were ruled over by the married leaders: King Ferdinand of Aragon + Queen Isabella of Castile


What was the Treaty of Medina del Campo?

Treaty of Medina del Campo (1489)
- Between: England + Spain
- Both agreed: mutual protection, no harbouring of rebels/pretenders, marriage of Prince Arthur + Princess Catherine


When did Prince Arthur marry Princess Catherine?



When did Prince Arthur die? How old was he? Why did he die?

- April 1502
- Aged 15
- Died of ‘sweating sickness’


Who proposed the marriage of Prince Henry to Princess Catherine after the death of Arthur? Why?

Henry VII (Ferdinand less sure: expensive for papal dispensation + less reliant on the alliance)
- Wanted to keep alliance with superpower
- Wanted to keep Catherine’s dowry


Why did it take so long for Prince Arthur + Princess Catherine to get married?

- Henry VII + Ferdinand disagreed over size of Catherine’s dowry
- Ferdinand reluctant whilst Perkin Warbeck was a serious threat


Why did Queen Isabella’s death start the Castilian Succession Crisis (1504-06)?

Conflict between...
- Joanna (Isabella’s daughter) + Philip (her husband, leader of Burgundy + Netherlands, son of HRE Maximilian I)
- Ferdinand (Isabella’s husband, leader of Aragon)


Henry actually suggested to the French the formation of the League of Cambrai, but what was his intention for it?

An anti-Spanish alliance


When and why did Henry VII start to regret his proposal of a new marriage between Prince Henry + Princess Catherine?

- 1504
- Death of Isabella meant Ferdinand’s position in Spain was insecure + marriage potentially wouldn’t be as valuable


Who did Henry VII support in the Castilian Succession Crisis? When did this become apparent?

- Chose to support: Joanna + Phillip
- Became apparent: Treaty of Windsor (1506)


Who won the Castilian Succession Crisis? Why?

- Ferdinand (became regent of Castile) (1506)
- Philip died (1506), leaving only Joanna, who Ferdinand was able to discredit by saying she was ‘mad’ with grief


Was Henry VII’s foreign policy regarding Spain successful?

- Until 1506: successful. No harbouring of pretenders, agreed mutual support, royal marriage (+ plans for a second)
- After 1506: unsuccessful. No second royal marriage, tensions with Ferdinand, England increasingly isolated from politics (BUT - HAD LAID FOUNDATIONS FOR MARRIAGE IN NEXT TUDOR REIGN)


What impact did Ferdinand winning the Succession Crisis have on Anglo-Spanish relations in the last years of Henry VII’s reign?

Weakened relationship
- Ferdinand was angered by Henry’s lack of support
- Ferdinand ensured Catherine wouldn’t marry Prince Henry in Henry VII’s lifetime
- England became increasingly politically isolated (League of Cambrai, etc)


Who was the leader of Scotland at the start of Henry VII’s reign?

James IV (minor until 1495)


What were the main aspects of Henry VII’s foreign policy in Scotland?

- Truce (1485-88)
- Tension (1485-95)
- James IV supported Perkin Warbeck (1495)
- James IV + Warbeck failed English invasion (1496)
- Truce of Ayton (1497)
- Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1502)
- Marriage of James IV + Princess Margaret (1503)


What is evidence that James IV supported Perkin Warbeck?

Offered him: hospitality, pension, marriage (Lady Catherine Gordon - cousin of King)


Why did James IV + Perkin Warbeck’s 1496 English invasion fail?

Lack of northern support


What was the Truce of Ayton?

Truce of Ayton (1497)
- Stopped cross border conflicts
- Suggested marriage of James IV + Princess Margaret (King’s daughter)


What was the formalised version of the Truce of Ayton?

Treaty of Perpetual Peace


What was the Treaty of Perpetual Peace?

Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1502)
- Formalised the Truce of Ayton into peace agreement between England + Scotland
- Sanctioned for royal marriage of James IV + Princess Margaret next yr


Was Henry VII’s foreign policy regarding Scotland successful?

Yes - managed to replace traditional enemy (which was a threat due to close proximity) with agreement of peace and no harbouring of pretenders, solidified with royal marriage


Was Henry VII’s foreign policy regarding Ireland successful?

- Pre-1494: Unsuccessful. Lack of control + harboured pretenders.
- 1494-6: Partial success. More control under Poynings + his army, but unsustainably expensive.
- Post-1494: Partial success. Ireland didn’t cause any issues for Henry, but if Earl of Kildare had decided to rebel this would have been a great issue


What were the main aspects of Henry VII’s foreign policy in Ireland?

- Lack of control (pre-1494)
- Kildare attainted + replaced with Poynings + army (1494)
- Poyning’s Law (1495)
- Kildare reinstated (1496)
- Slight increase in control (post-1496)


Who was the leader of Ireland at the start of Henry VII’s reign?

- Henry VII was technically leader, but controlled only ‘the Pale’ (area around Dublin)
- ‘Beyond the Pale’: controlled by independent chieftains


Who was the most important independent chieftain holding power ‘Beyond the Pale’ in Ireland at start of Henry VII’s reign?

Earl of Kildare (a Fitzgerald)


Why did Henry VII attaint + remove Earl of Kildare from Ireland in 1494?

- Had Yorkist sympathies
- Had supported pretenders: Simnell (crowned 1487) + Warbeck


Who did Henry VII implement to try to increase control in Ireland?

- Sir Edward Poynings
- (Also made young Prince Henry official ‘Lieutenant of Ireland’)


What was Poyning’s Law?

Poyning’s Law (1495)
- Attempt to implement English legislation in Ireland
- Irish Parliament unable to pass laws without English gov approval


Why was Kildare reinstated in Ireland (1496)?

- Expensive to keep non-local leaders overseeing Ireland
- Had other costs at the time, e.g. needed to raise army against Scots


How was the Earl of Kildare rewarded for remaining loyal for the rest of Henry VII’s reign?

Made Knight of the Garter (prestige) in 1504


How many children did Henry VII have? How many survived to adulthood? Names?

- 8 children
- 4 survived to adulthood: Arthur, Margaret, Henry, Mary


Until when was the Tudor succession seen as secure? Why did it become insecure?

Secure until 1502/3
- 1502: Eldest son Arthur died of sweating sickness (loss of heir)
- 1503: Wife Elizabeth of York died in childbirth (no more children)


Did Henry VII attempt to remarry after 1503 death of wife?

Yes, but never did
- E.g. Suggestion of marriage to Philip’s sister Dowager Duchess Margaret of Savoy (Treaty of Windsor-1506)


How did Henry VII use marriages?

To strengthen alliances with foreign powers


Give examples of marriage alliances used by Henry VII

- Spain: Arthur/Henry + Catherine
- Scotland: Princess Margaret + King James IV


What happened during the accession of Henry VIII to the throne?

- Henry VII died (21st April 1509)
- Death kept secret for 2 days so nobody would take advantage of unstable throne
- Henry VIII announced King (23rd April 1509)
- Troublemakers arrested (24th April 1509)