1. Equine Nutrition 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. Equine Nutrition 1-3 Deck (67):
1

If you are feeding your horse for efficiency you should feed _____, like ____ and _____

High quality feeds, like grains and seed meals

2

If you are feeding your horse for effectivity you should feed ____, like ____ and _____.

High fiber feeds like grasses and hays

3

What is wave mouth? cna it be fixed?

When the teeth are diseased and worn improperly causing difficulty eating. Cannot be fixed. must catch earlier

4

Where does protein digestion occur?

Small intestine

5

Protein is absorbed as __

AA

6

T/F. The more feed in the stomach the faster the transit time in the SI

T

7

Site of absorption of vitamins and minerals

SI

8

What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins absorbed in the SI

A, D, E, K

9

Problems and segments of the SI usually removed are the ____

Ileum

10

What segment of the sI does the most work?

ileum

11

What part of the GIT absorbs carotene?

SI

12

You can remove up to __% of the SI w/o problems

50%

13

Site of absorption of carbohydrates

SI

14

Hydrolyzable carbohydrates

Starches

15

Fat is absorbed in the SI as ____ and ___.

Triglycerides and glycerol

16

Which 3 minerals are absorbed in the SI?

Ca, Mg, Phos

17

Feed from a single meal can appear in the LI within ___ hrs

2

18

___ is the primary site of water absorption

LI

19

Digestion in the LI is primarily due to ___

microbial fermentation

20

Microbes in the LI utilize what 3 things?

fiber, starch, protein

21

Microbes in the LI breakdown ____

structural carbohydrates of plants

22

Microbes in the LI produce ___

VFAs

23

What are the 3 VFAs produced by microbes in the LI

Acetate, Butyrate, Propionate

24

If a horse is on rich, lush, green pastures there is a possibility they can develop over condition leading to ___ and ____.

laminitis and colic

25

What are the 4 structural carbohydrates?

1. cellulose
2. hemicellulose
3. Ligno-cellulose
4. lignin

26

What are the 5 categories of carbohydrates?

1. Non-structural
2. structural
3. Hydrolyzable
4. Rapidly fermentable
5. Slowly fermentable

27

What are the 2 non structural carbohydrates

Starch, fructans

28

T/F. Lignin is easily metabolized by the horse?

F

29

Where are Hydrolyzable CHOs digested

SI

30

What are the 2 examples of Hydrolyzable CHO

1. Simple sugars
2. Non resistant starches

31

Where are rapidly fermentable CHOs digested

LI (microbes)

32

What are two ex. of rapidly fermentable CHOs

1. resistant starches
2. oligosaccharides

33

Where are slowly fermentable CHOs digested

SI (microbes)

34

Average horses, doing general work need nothing more than ____, _____, and ____.

good quality pasture
water
Salt block

35

How do you assess long term nutrition and feeding?

Body condition Not wt.

36

Which feedstuff has the greatest variability in nutrient composition

Forages

37

Legumes have _high/low_ crude protein and calcium

High

38

Why is processing sometimes a problem in equine feeds?

could inc. rate of passage through GIT, decreasing digestibility

39

P is 30% available due to interactions with ___

phyates

40

Ca availablity is affected by ____ and ____

phyates and oxylates

41

T/F. Cellulose is not digested in the SI

T

42

what is proprionate, from cellulose breakdown, used for?

gluconeogenesis

43

What are the 4 criteria of good quality hay

1. harvested early
2. free of mold
3. not undergone excessive weathering
4. leafy and not stemmy

44

what is the main type of legume in horses

alfalfa

45

T/F. Alfalfa tends to have 2-3x more protein and Ca than other hays

T

46

T/F. Alfalfa tends to have more carotene and vit. E than other hays

T

47

Where is Beet pulp absorbed

LI

48

Beet pulp can make up what percentage of a horses diet?

50%

49

T/F Beet pulp has a high glycemic index

F. Low

50

Advantages of feeding corn to horse:

1. Double the energy of oats
2. cheap
3. High vit. A

51

Disadvantages of feeding corn:

1. Lower protein
2. mold toxicity

52

Advantages to feeding oats?

1. High fiber
2. Better protein than corn

53

Disadvantages to oats?

1. inconsistent quality
2. Expensive

54

What is the most common protein supplement in horses

Soybean meal

55

Why is molasses added to horse feed?

1. palatability
2. dec. dust
3. High Ca content

56

In a high fat diet the fat component is added by adding _____.

Rice bran

57

What are the two types of commercially prepared feeds?

1. Complete feeds
2. Grain mixes

58

T/F. Nutrient Requirements represent. a minimum requirement for most nutrients

T

59

Most vitamins and minerals use _____ times NRC

1.25-3

60

Nutrient requirements are based on what 4 factors?

1. Type of horse
2. Age
3. Current BCS
4. Physiologic state (repro, excessive fitness)

61

First Limiting AA

Lysine

62

What is the ideal Ca/P ratio in the growing horse?

2:1

63

What is the ideal Ca/P ratio in the adult horse?

1:1 - 6:1

64

The liver stores 3-6 month supply of Vit. __

A

65

Where is Vit. E found?

Green growing pastures

66

What are two equine grain-associated disorders?

1. gastrointestinal disorders
2. Metabolic disorders

67

Effects of grain on LI

1. Acidification
2. Altered flora
3. Mucosal damage