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Flashcards in 1. Fundamentals Of Computing Deck (51)
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How do computers affect our safety?

• Planes
• Traffic Lights
• Signal Trains
• Nuclear Power Plants
• Hospitals - Monitoring, Alerts, Robot operations, Scanning


How do computers affect our communication?

• Smart Phones
• Email
• Internet
• GPS Systems


How do computers affect business?

• Ordering
• Manufacturing
• Accounting
• Payroll
• Stock Control
• Online Stores
• Call Centres


How do computers affect entertainment?

• DVD Players
• Smart TV Sets
• MP3 Players
• Games Consoles


How do computers affect education?

• Internet Searches


How do computers affect government?

• Getting and giving information
• Paying Taxes
• The government is moving online: Housing, Benefits, Bill Paying, Tax Info


How do computers affect science?

• Working with larger data-sets
• Calculations
• Discovering patterns and proofs


What is a system?

A collection of parts that work together to achieve some goal.


What is a COMPUTER system?

A combination of hardware and software components that allow input, processing and output of data.


What are the 4 components of a computer system?

1) Input
2) Output
3) Processing
4) Storage


How does a computer receive an input?

Real-world action -> Analogue to digital conversion -> Binary data to computer


How does a computer send out an output?

Binary data from computer -> Digital to analogue conversion -> Real-world effect


How is reliability measured in a system?

Availability: The percentage of time a system is available for (e.g. 1hr of down-time per 100hrs gives 99% availability)
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): The average time between failures


What is a system boundary?

Where one system ends and perhaps another begins.


Can a system be made out of smaller systems?

Yes, a system can be made up from sub-systems


What is a "dedicated" system?

One which is used for a single purpose (e.g. Engine management in a car)


What is a "General Purpose" system?

One that is used for many things (e.g. A PC)


What is an "Embedded System"?

A system which is built into a device that it controls.


What is a "Micro Controller"?

• Basically a computer on a chip
• It has inputs, processing ability, some memory and can produce outputs
• It is usually used in an embedded system


What are the four main standards?

1) Proprietary
2) Industry
3) De-Facto
4) Open


What is hardware?

The physical components that make up a computer system.


What is software?

The programs that run on a computer system.


What is an input device?

Hardware that accepts data into the computer.

Examples: keyboard, mouse, microphone, webcam


What is an output device?

Hardware that presents the results of processing to the user or actuators that perform a task automatically.

Examples: monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, actuators (motors)


What is a storage device?

Hardware that is used to store files long term and is not volatile.

Examples: hard disks, memory sticks, magnetic tapes, CDs


Name some examples of how computers have become important in recent years.

• Safety - Planes, Traffic Lights, Trains, Nuclear power stations, Hospitals
• Communication - Phones, Email, Internet, GPS
• Business - Ordering, Manufacture, Accounting, On-line stores
• Entertainment - DVD players/recorders, Smart TV, MP3 players, Games consoles
• Education - VLE, Internet
• Government - Getting and giving information (e.g. Paying Tax)
• Science - Scientists can work with larger data-sets, Calculations


Define reliability.

How far you can depend on the computer system being available when you need it. Usually measured in availability.


Define availability.

The proportion of time that a system is operational, usually expressed as a percentage over a period of time.


What is a proprietary standard?

• Standards set and owned by a single company that adheres to them
• Others can't amend or add to them


What is an industry standard?

• Set out and owned by industry bodies
• Followed by all who make hardware or software to be used in a given way