Flashcards in 1. Fundamentals Of Computing Deck (51)
How do computers affect our safety?
• Traffic Lights
• Signal Trains
• Nuclear Power Plants
• Hospitals - Monitoring, Alerts, Robot operations, Scanning
How do computers affect our communication?
• Smart Phones
• GPS Systems
How do computers affect business?
• Stock Control
• Online Stores
• Call Centres
How do computers affect entertainment?
• DVD Players
• Smart TV Sets
• MP3 Players
• Games Consoles
How do computers affect education?
• Internet Searches
How do computers affect government?
• Getting and giving information
• Paying Taxes
• The government is moving online: Housing, Benefits, Bill Paying, Tax Info
How do computers affect science?
• Working with larger data-sets
• Discovering patterns and proofs
What is a system?
A collection of parts that work together to achieve some goal.
What is a COMPUTER system?
A combination of hardware and software components that allow input, processing and output of data.
What are the 4 components of a computer system?
How does a computer receive an input?
Real-world action -> Analogue to digital conversion -> Binary data to computer
How does a computer send out an output?
Binary data from computer -> Digital to analogue conversion -> Real-world effect
How is reliability measured in a system?
Availability: The percentage of time a system is available for (e.g. 1hr of down-time per 100hrs gives 99% availability)
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): The average time between failures
What is a system boundary?
Where one system ends and perhaps another begins.
Can a system be made out of smaller systems?
Yes, a system can be made up from sub-systems
What is a "dedicated" system?
One which is used for a single purpose (e.g. Engine management in a car)
What is a "General Purpose" system?
One that is used for many things (e.g. A PC)
What is an "Embedded System"?
A system which is built into a device that it controls.
What is a "Micro Controller"?
• Basically a computer on a chip
• It has inputs, processing ability, some memory and can produce outputs
• It is usually used in an embedded system
What are the four main standards?
What is hardware?
The physical components that make up a computer system.
What is software?
The programs that run on a computer system.
What is an input device?
Hardware that accepts data into the computer.
Examples: keyboard, mouse, microphone, webcam
What is an output device?
Hardware that presents the results of processing to the user or actuators that perform a task automatically.
Examples: monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, actuators (motors)
What is a storage device?
Hardware that is used to store files long term and is not volatile.
Examples: hard disks, memory sticks, magnetic tapes, CDs
Name some examples of how computers have become important in recent years.
• Safety - Planes, Traffic Lights, Trains, Nuclear power stations, Hospitals
• Communication - Phones, Email, Internet, GPS
• Business - Ordering, Manufacture, Accounting, On-line stores
• Entertainment - DVD players/recorders, Smart TV, MP3 players, Games consoles
• Education - VLE, Internet
• Government - Getting and giving information (e.g. Paying Tax)
• Science - Scientists can work with larger data-sets, Calculations
How far you can depend on the computer system being available when you need it. Usually measured in availability.
The proportion of time that a system is operational, usually expressed as a percentage over a period of time.
What is a proprietary standard?
• Standards set and owned by a single company that adheres to them
• Others can't amend or add to them