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Flashcards in 1. Fundamentals Of Computing Deck (51)
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1

How do computers affect our safety?

• Planes
• Traffic Lights
• Signal Trains
• Nuclear Power Plants
• Hospitals - Monitoring, Alerts, Robot operations, Scanning

2

How do computers affect our communication?

• Smart Phones
• Email
• Internet
• GPS Systems

3

How do computers affect business?

• Ordering
• Manufacturing
• Accounting
• Payroll
• Stock Control
• Online Stores
• Call Centres

4

How do computers affect entertainment?

• DVD Players
• Smart TV Sets
• MP3 Players
• Games Consoles

5

How do computers affect education?

• VLE
• Internet Searches

6

How do computers affect government?

• Getting and giving information
• Paying Taxes
• The government is moving online: Housing, Benefits, Bill Paying, Tax Info

7

How do computers affect science?

• Working with larger data-sets
• Calculations
• Discovering patterns and proofs

8

What is a system?

A collection of parts that work together to achieve some goal.

9

What is a COMPUTER system?

A combination of hardware and software components that allow input, processing and output of data.

10

What are the 4 components of a computer system?

1) Input
2) Output
3) Processing
4) Storage

11

How does a computer receive an input?

Real-world action -> Analogue to digital conversion -> Binary data to computer

12

How does a computer send out an output?

Binary data from computer -> Digital to analogue conversion -> Real-world effect

13

How is reliability measured in a system?

Availability: The percentage of time a system is available for (e.g. 1hr of down-time per 100hrs gives 99% availability)
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): The average time between failures

14

What is a system boundary?

Where one system ends and perhaps another begins.

15

Can a system be made out of smaller systems?

Yes, a system can be made up from sub-systems

16

What is a "dedicated" system?

One which is used for a single purpose (e.g. Engine management in a car)

17

What is a "General Purpose" system?

One that is used for many things (e.g. A PC)

18

What is an "Embedded System"?

A system which is built into a device that it controls.

19

What is a "Micro Controller"?

• Basically a computer on a chip
• It has inputs, processing ability, some memory and can produce outputs
• It is usually used in an embedded system

20

What are the four main standards?

1) Proprietary
2) Industry
3) De-Facto
4) Open

21

What is hardware?

The physical components that make up a computer system.

22

What is software?

The programs that run on a computer system.

23

What is an input device?

Hardware that accepts data into the computer.

Examples: keyboard, mouse, microphone, webcam

24

What is an output device?

Hardware that presents the results of processing to the user or actuators that perform a task automatically.

Examples: monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, actuators (motors)

25

What is a storage device?

Hardware that is used to store files long term and is not volatile.

Examples: hard disks, memory sticks, magnetic tapes, CDs

26

Name some examples of how computers have become important in recent years.

• Safety - Planes, Traffic Lights, Trains, Nuclear power stations, Hospitals
• Communication - Phones, Email, Internet, GPS
• Business - Ordering, Manufacture, Accounting, On-line stores
• Entertainment - DVD players/recorders, Smart TV, MP3 players, Games consoles
• Education - VLE, Internet
• Government - Getting and giving information (e.g. Paying Tax)
• Science - Scientists can work with larger data-sets, Calculations

27

Define reliability.

How far you can depend on the computer system being available when you need it. Usually measured in availability.

28

Define availability.

The proportion of time that a system is operational, usually expressed as a percentage over a period of time.

29

What is a proprietary standard?

• Standards set and owned by a single company that adheres to them
• Others can't amend or add to them

30

What is an industry standard?

• Set out and owned by industry bodies
• Followed by all who make hardware or software to be used in a given way