6. Communications and Networking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6. Communications and Networking Deck (167)
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1

What does LAN stand for?

Local Area Network

2

What is a LAN?

A collection of computers and peripheral devices connected together on a single site.

3

Give an example of a LAN.

A school is likely to have a LAN.

4

What are the advantages of networking stand-alone computers into a LAN?

• Sharing resources - Files, peripheral devices, Internet connection
• Communication - Email, Messaging systems, File transfer
• Centralised management - Profile and security management, Software distribution, Users can access their files on any PC, Centralised back-up

5

How does connecting stand-alone computers into a LAN allow sharing of resources?

• Sharing folders and files
• Sharing peripheral devices
• Sharing an Internet connection

6

How does connecting stand-alone computers into a LAN allow communication?

• Email
• Chat systems
• File transfer between computers

7

How does connecting stand-alone computers into a LAN allow centralised management?

• User profiles and security can be managed centrally
• Software can be distributed across the network instead of installing on each individual computer
• Users can use any PC but still see their own files
• Centralised backup of all files

8

What are the main network topologies?

• Ring
• Bus
• Star

9

What is a topology?

A description of how devices are connected together in a network.

10

Describe a bus network.

• Computers connected to a single backbone (called the bus), ended by terminators
• Only one computer can transmit at any one time

11

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a bus network?

ADV
• Easy and inexpensive to install -> Less cabling
• Easy to add new computers
DIS
• If main cable fails, then whole network goes down
• Cable failures are hard to isolate because all of the computers in the network are affected
• Performance slows down as the traffic increases

12

Describe a ring network.

• Computers connected to adjacent computers in a ring
• Computers take turns to transmit, controlled by passing a token around. Computers can only transmit when they have the token.
• Transmission all in one direction

13

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a ring network?

ADV
• Not dependent on central computer (like a star network is)
• Token passing is simple and reliable
• Consistent performance, even with a lot of traffic
DIS
• Single node or link failure disrupts the entire network

14

Describe a star network.

• All computers have their own cable connecting them to central computer
• The central computer controls the network and is usually a switch or server

15

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a star network?

ADV
• If one cable fails, only one station is affected
• Consistent performance, even with heavy use
• Easy to add new computers
• More secure -> Messages from computer go directly to centre
DIS
• Expensive due to cabling
• If the central computer fails, the whole network goes down

16

What can be found at the centre of a star topology?

A switch or server (or a hub)

17

Describe how computers in a school might be connected in a LAN.

• Computers in a classroom connected by a star topology to a hub or switch (wired or wirelessly)
• Different classroom topologies linked by a star or bus topology

18

How does the size of a LAN determine what is at the centre of a star topology?

• Small network -> Server
• In a room which is part of a larger LAN -> Switch

19

What does NIC stand for?

Network Interface Card

20

What is a Network Interface Card (NIC)?

• The card that plugs into a computer to provide a connection to a LAN.
• Can be wireless or cabled.
• Holds the MAC address.

21

What allows a computer to connect to a LAN?

The Network Interface Card (NIC).

22

What is a server?

A computer designed to process requests and deliver data to other client computers over a local network or the internet.

23

What is a stand-alone computer?

One not connected to any other.

24

What is a network?

The term for two or more computers connected together.

25

What is peer-to-peer network?

A method of organising a network where:
• Devices are all of equal status rather than having specialised roles
• Each computer can access resources on another computer
• Each computer can act as a client or server at times

26

What is a client-server network?

A method of organising a network where:
• Some computers act as servers
• The computers (clients) make requests to these servers
• Management of the server is centralised at the server

27

Why might a peer-to-peer network be used instead of a client-server network?

If the office or network is small, the it is not cost-effective to run a client-server network.

28

Can any computer access files from any other computer on a peer-to-peer network?

Yes, as long as access rights have been granted.

29

What are the advantages of a peer-to-peer and client-server network?

PEER-TO-PEER
• Easy to set up and maintain
• No dependency on server
CLIENT-SERVER
• Centralised security and management
• Back-up can be done from central server

30

What does WAN stand for?

Wide Area Network