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Flashcards in 1. Garrett Lahey Deck (66):
1

What are the 3 general functions of epithelial cells?

absorption, secretion, provides barrier

2

Is epithelium vascular or avascular? It is associated with with vascular CT for what 2 reasons?

*Avascular
for nutrition and defense cells

3

define selective permeability

transport/prevent molecules crossing

4

What are the 2 basic characteristics of epithelial cells?

- cells are adjacent to each other
- associated with...
complete basement membrane (basil + reticular layers)
OR
partial basement membrane (basil layer ONLY = lungs)

5

Basil lamina are produced by what type of cells?

epithelial cells

6

Reticular lamina are produced by what type of cells?

connective tissue fibroblasts

7

What are the 4 important functions of basement membrane?

1. provides attachment surface
2. molecular filter
3. limits stretch
4. directs cell migrations (during wound healing)

8

“Tight junction” = strong attachment, prevents passage b/w cells is describing what cell junction?

Zonula Occludens

9

"Adhesion belt” = strong attachment, structural cell stability“ is describing what cell junction?

Zonula Adhernes

10

“Desmosome” = strong attachment describes what cell junction?

Macula Adhernes

11

Strong attachment, transports materials b/w cells describes what cell junction?

Gap junction

12

Finger-like projections, increase SA for absorption...is describing what epithelial surface modification?

microvilli (brushborder)

13

What are some locations of microvilli?

kidney tubule cell, small intestines

14

Extremely long microvilli, fewer, non-motile, increase SA...is describing what epithelial surface modification?

stereocilia

15

What are some location of stereo cilia?

epididymis, cochlear hair cells

16

Thin apical hair-like extensions of cytoskeleton, move materials over surface, cells have many mitochondria, NO absorption/secretion...is describing what epithelial surface modification?

cilia

17

What are some locations of cilia?

trachea, oviduct

18

Surface layer of glycoproteins/carbs that covers epithelium, produced by epithelium, functions for protection and *CELL RECOGNITION...is describing what epithelial surface modification?

glycocalyx

19

What are some locations of glycocalyx?

stomach, small intestines

20

“Respiratory Epithelium” is describing what special epithelium type?

Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

21

Modified columnar, produce MUCUS is describing what cells found in Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?

Goblet cells

22

Columnar cells containing cilia, MOVE mucus is describing what cells found in Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?

Ciliated Columnar Cells

23

Pyramidal cell, does not reach surface, acts as STEM of cell describes what cells found in Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?

Basal Cells

24

5 layers of cells for protection in a DRY environment is describing what special epithelium type?

Keratinized Stratified Squamous

25

What are the 5 layers of Keratinized Stratified Squamous?

1. Stratum basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. Stratum corneum

26

1-2 layers of keratinocytes, *MITOTIC and closest to dermis is what layer?

Stratum basale (1)

27

What kind of cells are found in the stratum basal?

Melanocytes

28

Multiple layers of “spiny-shaped” keratinocytes; and produce lipids/keratohyaline vacuoles is that layer?

Stratum spinosum (2)

29

What kind of cells are found in the stratum spinosum that recognize and process foreign antigens?

Langerhans Cells

30

Uppermost 2-5 layers, flattened/condensed living cell exocytosis of lipid-filled lamellar granules is what layer?

Stratum granulosum (3)

31

Thin layer of recently dead/dying keratinocytes that is ONLY present in THICK skin, NO nucleus/organelles present is what layer?

Stratum lucidum (4)

32

Layer of DEAD cells (keratin and lipids); and prevents water loss, provides barrier to microbes, protects against abrasion is what layer?

Stratum corneum (5)

33

Product is released into duct or directly onto epithelial surface describes what type of secretion method?

exocrine

34

Components directly involved with primary function describes what type of exocrine secretion?

Parenchyma (Ex. biceps brachii - skeletal muscles)

35

Components providing mechanical/metabolic support describes what type of exocrine secretion?

Stroma (Ex . biceps brachii – CT, nerves, lymphatics, blood vessels)

36

Exocytosis (no cell damage) describes what type of secretion method? More common in adults or children?

Merocrine/Eccrine (ALL sweat glands in *children, many in adults, goblet cells, salivary glands, pancreas)

37

Cell matures and DIES (*cell death), associated with ODOR describes what type of secretion method?

Holocrine (Sebaceous glands, tarsal glands of eyelid)

38

Minimal cell damage, associated with ODOR describes what type secretion method? More common in adults or children?

Appocrine (Adult sweat glands *axillary and *pubic region, mammillary glands, ceruminous ear glands)

39

HORMONE released into nearby CT for vascular dispersal describes what type of secretion method?

Endocrine

40

What are 2 types of endocrine secretion?

paracrine and autocrine

41

Signaling cell close to target cell, hormone does NOT enter blood is what type of endocrine secretion?

paracrine

42

Signaling cell is its own target is what type of endocrine secretion?

autocrine

43

What cells are sometimes found in ducts of exocrine gland that assists secretion?

Myoepithelial cells

44

(+/- ) feedback loops are associated with what?

hormones

45

Autoimmune skin disease causing large blistering lesions that burst, but do heal.
 The cause: antibodies bind to some proteins in hemidesmosomes. This describes what disease?

Bullous Pemphigoid

46

Autoimmune skin disease causing skin blistering that do not heal easily; excessive bleeding likely. Can be fatal. The cause: antibodies bind to some parts of desmosomes. This describes what disease?

Pemphigus Vulgaris

47

Acute bacterial infection of the small intestines.
The cause : Toxins disrupt proteins in Zonula Occludens, which permits the loss of water and electrolytes from the CT below the epithelium.

Cholera

48

What kind of cells numbers INCREASE when exposed to UV light repeatedly?

melanocytes

49

What kind of cells DECREASE with repeated UV light exposure?

Langerhans cells

50

Patchy skin lesions, accelerated keratinocyte life cycle, cells accumulate in stratum corneum, inflammation in dermal papillae, cyclic and etiology is unknown. This describes what disease?

Psoriasis Vulgaris

51

Spots with extra pigment; especially in the fair skinned, an increase in melanin without an increase in melanocyte numbers, tend to fade in winter and darken with sun exposure describes what?

freckles

52

Patches which lack melanocytes, unknown cause but often associated with systemic disease such as hypo/hyperthyroidism, diabetes and Addisons disease describes what?

Vitiligo

53

Discoloration due to a proliferation of melanocytes describes what?

Moles (naevi)

54

Melanocytes become mitotically active and invade dermis, very invasive and metastatic. (treatment: surgery and chemotherapy) This describes what?

Malignant Melanoma

55

Melanocytes fail to produce melanin causes what?

Albinism

56

What is the most common form of Albinism?

Tyrosinase (enzyme) is missing from melanocytes

57

Which disease is described by increased in WBCs and basketball sized lymph nodes. Normally found is what what geographic region?

Kristaps Porziņģis syndrome (KPS); Latvia

58

What structure/organ is simple epithelium and simple squamous cells associate with?

lungs

59

What structure/organ is simple cuboidal cells associate with?

exocrine ducts

60

What structure/organ is simple columnar cells associate with?

stomach/small intestines

61

What structure/organ is ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium cells associated with?

trachea, repritory , nasal cavity, bronchi

62

What structure/organ is stratified squamous cells associate with?

esophagus, oral cavoity, tongue, vagina

63

What structure/organ is keratinized squamous cells associate with?

skin

64

What structure/organ is stratified cuboidal cells associate with?

large ducts in sweat glands/ salivary glands

65

What structure/organ is stratified columnar cells associate with?

large ducts in pancreas, male urethra, conjunctiva

66

What structure/organ is transitional cells associate with?

most of the urinary tract