Flashcards in 1. Garrett Lahey Deck (66):
What are the 3 general functions of epithelial cells?
absorption, secretion, provides barrier
Is epithelium vascular or avascular? It is associated with with vascular CT for what 2 reasons?
for nutrition and defense cells
define selective permeability
transport/prevent molecules crossing
What are the 2 basic characteristics of epithelial cells?
- cells are adjacent to each other
- associated with...
complete basement membrane (basil + reticular layers)
partial basement membrane (basil layer ONLY = lungs)
Basil lamina are produced by what type of cells?
Reticular lamina are produced by what type of cells?
connective tissue fibroblasts
What are the 4 important functions of basement membrane?
1. provides attachment surface
2. molecular filter
3. limits stretch
4. directs cell migrations (during wound healing)
“Tight junction” = strong attachment, prevents passage b/w cells is describing what cell junction?
"Adhesion belt” = strong attachment, structural cell stability“ is describing what cell junction?
“Desmosome” = strong attachment describes what cell junction?
Strong attachment, transports materials b/w cells describes what cell junction?
Finger-like projections, increase SA for absorption...is describing what epithelial surface modification?
What are some locations of microvilli?
kidney tubule cell, small intestines
Extremely long microvilli, fewer, non-motile, increase SA...is describing what epithelial surface modification?
What are some location of stereo cilia?
epididymis, cochlear hair cells
Thin apical hair-like extensions of cytoskeleton, move materials over surface, cells have many mitochondria, NO absorption/secretion...is describing what epithelial surface modification?
What are some locations of cilia?
Surface layer of glycoproteins/carbs that covers epithelium, produced by epithelium, functions for protection and *CELL RECOGNITION...is describing what epithelial surface modification?
What are some locations of glycocalyx?
stomach, small intestines
“Respiratory Epithelium” is describing what special epithelium type?
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Modified columnar, produce MUCUS is describing what cells found in Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?
Columnar cells containing cilia, MOVE mucus is describing what cells found in Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?
Ciliated Columnar Cells
Pyramidal cell, does not reach surface, acts as STEM of cell describes what cells found in Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?
5 layers of cells for protection in a DRY environment is describing what special epithelium type?
Keratinized Stratified Squamous
What are the 5 layers of Keratinized Stratified Squamous?
1. Stratum basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. Stratum corneum
1-2 layers of keratinocytes, *MITOTIC and closest to dermis is what layer?
Stratum basale (1)
What kind of cells are found in the stratum basal?
Multiple layers of “spiny-shaped” keratinocytes; and produce lipids/keratohyaline vacuoles is that layer?
Stratum spinosum (2)
What kind of cells are found in the stratum spinosum that recognize and process foreign antigens?
Uppermost 2-5 layers, flattened/condensed living cell exocytosis of lipid-filled lamellar granules is what layer?
Stratum granulosum (3)
Thin layer of recently dead/dying keratinocytes that is ONLY present in THICK skin, NO nucleus/organelles present is what layer?
Stratum lucidum (4)
Layer of DEAD cells (keratin and lipids); and prevents water loss, provides barrier to microbes, protects against abrasion is what layer?
Stratum corneum (5)
Product is released into duct or directly onto epithelial surface describes what type of secretion method?
Components directly involved with primary function describes what type of exocrine secretion?
Parenchyma (Ex. biceps brachii - skeletal muscles)
Components providing mechanical/metabolic support describes what type of exocrine secretion?
Stroma (Ex . biceps brachii – CT, nerves, lymphatics, blood vessels)
Exocytosis (no cell damage) describes what type of secretion method? More common in adults or children?
Merocrine/Eccrine (ALL sweat glands in *children, many in adults, goblet cells, salivary glands, pancreas)
Cell matures and DIES (*cell death), associated with ODOR describes what type of secretion method?
Holocrine (Sebaceous glands, tarsal glands of eyelid)
Minimal cell damage, associated with ODOR describes what type secretion method? More common in adults or children?
Appocrine (Adult sweat glands *axillary and *pubic region, mammillary glands, ceruminous ear glands)
HORMONE released into nearby CT for vascular dispersal describes what type of secretion method?
What are 2 types of endocrine secretion?
paracrine and autocrine
Signaling cell close to target cell, hormone does NOT enter blood is what type of endocrine secretion?
Signaling cell is its own target is what type of endocrine secretion?
What cells are sometimes found in ducts of exocrine gland that assists secretion?
(+/- ) feedback loops are associated with what?
Autoimmune skin disease causing large blistering lesions that burst, but do heal. The cause: antibodies bind to some proteins in hemidesmosomes. This describes what disease?
Autoimmune skin disease causing skin blistering that do not heal easily; excessive bleeding likely. Can be fatal. The cause: antibodies bind to some parts of desmosomes. This describes what disease?
Acute bacterial infection of the small intestines. The cause : Toxins disrupt proteins in Zonula Occludens, which permits the loss of water and electrolytes from the CT below the epithelium.
What kind of cells numbers INCREASE when exposed to UV light repeatedly?
What kind of cells DECREASE with repeated UV light exposure?
Patchy skin lesions, accelerated keratinocyte life cycle, cells accumulate in stratum corneum, inflammation in dermal papillae, cyclic and etiology is unknown. This describes what disease?
Spots with extra pigment; especially in the fair skinned, an increase in melanin without an increase in melanocyte numbers, tend to fade in winter and darken with sun exposure describes what?
Patches which lack melanocytes, unknown cause but often associated with systemic disease such as hypo/hyperthyroidism, diabetes and Addisons disease describes what?
Discoloration due to a proliferation of melanocytes describes what?
Melanocytes become mitotically active and invade dermis, very invasive and metastatic. (treatment: surgery and chemotherapy) This describes what?
Melanocytes fail to produce melanin causes what?
What is the most common form of Albinism?
Tyrosinase (enzyme) is missing from melanocytes
Which disease is described by increased in WBCs and basketball sized lymph nodes. Normally found is what what geographic region?
Kristaps Porziņģis syndrome (KPS); Latvia
What structure/organ is simple epithelium and simple squamous cells associate with?
What structure/organ is simple cuboidal cells associate with?
What structure/organ is simple columnar cells associate with?
What structure/organ is ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium cells associated with?
trachea, repritory , nasal cavity, bronchi
What structure/organ is stratified squamous cells associate with?
esophagus, oral cavoity, tongue, vagina
What structure/organ is keratinized squamous cells associate with?
What structure/organ is stratified cuboidal cells associate with?
large ducts in sweat glands/ salivary glands
What structure/organ is stratified columnar cells associate with?
large ducts in pancreas, male urethra, conjunctiva