What mnemonic should you use to take a headache history?
Sudden headaches are usually caused by intracranial ___.
What are some exacerbating factors for headaches?
Drugs, alcohol (including caffeine)
Diurnal / seasonal variation (cluster headaches)
Menstruation (related to oestrogen levels)
Some types of headache are accompanied by autonomic symptoms.
What are some examples?
Apart from autonomic symptoms, what are some other symptoms associated with headaches?
Horner's symptoms (miosis, ptosis)
Phonophobia (aversion to loud noises)
What are some red flags for headaches?
New/sudden onset in those > 55
Early morning onset
Hx malignancy, systemic illness
Exacerbated by valsalva manoeuvres
Headaches occurring at which time are a red flag?
New or sudden onset headache in a patient aged > ___ years old is a red flag.
What does the oral contraceptive pill increase your risk of?
What are the symptoms of a migraine?
of a short/medium course
+/- a visual aura
Are migraines unilateral or bilateral?
Migraines are more common in (men / women).
The headache of a migraine tends to be worst on ___.
of headache is required to diagnose migraine?
b) 5 attacks
Often, patients suffering a migraine are averse to light.
What is this symptom called?
How long after an aura sets in does a migraine usually follow?
Within an hour
What are some triggers for migraine?
What is thought to be the biggest risk factor for migraine?
How can you help a patient to identify their migraine triggers?
What is the general non-pharmacological management for migraine?
Rest in a dark room
Complimentary therapies e.g acupuncture
What is the abortive pharmacological management for acute migraines?
NSAID OR Triptan e.g rizatriptan
___ medication can be given to prevent migraines in people who suffer frequent episodes.
What beta blocker is given prophylactically for migraines?
Beta blockers for migraines must be avoided in people with which diseases?
Peripheral vascular disease
Which carbonic anhydrase inhibitor can be given prophylactically for people who suffer migraines?
Which drugs can be given prophylactically to people who suffer migraines?
Adjuncts e.g amitryptyline, gabapentin, Botox...
With prophylactic drugs, what dose is aimed for in migraine patients?
How long are prophylactic drugs for migraine trialled for?
What is the important dietary advice for migraine patients?
Healthy, balanced diet (avoid things like chocolate)
Plenty of water
Prophylactic treatment should be considered in patients having more than ___ migraines per month.
3 migraines per month