Parkinson's disease becomes symptomatic (early / late) in its course.
Which pathway is most responsible for motor function?
Which parts of the brain are responsible for adjusting movement information?
What is the role of the cerebellum in movement?
What is the difference between Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism?
Parkinson's disease - specific disease process causing symptoms
Parkinsonism - PD-like symptoms caused by other factors e.g dopamine antagonists
Which gait is caused by damage to the cerebellum?
What are the five basal ganglia?
What is the role of the basal ganglia?
Adjustment of movement impulses
Which neurotransmitters are involved in PD?
Which basal ganglion degenerates in PD?
Which type of neuron is lost from the substantia nigra in PD?
What is the hallmark of PD on histology?
___ bodies are a hallmark of PD.
Where in the brain is the substantia nigra found?
Does PD spread from the substantia nigra?
___ neurons are lost from the substantia nigra in PD, causing (sensory / motor) symptoms.
What are the motor symptoms of PD?
Bradykinesia (slower movements)
Resting tremor in PD is (symmetrical/asymmetrical).
best seen with hands in the lap
What is bradykinesia?
Reduced speed of movement
What is rigidity?
Increased muscle tone throughout a movement
Like dystonia - produces a stiff, "bent forward" posture
Where do PD patients experience rigidity?
Is it unilateral or bilateral?
Back, neck, limbs
Unilateral in limbs
How do you test postural stability in a patient?
Challenge standing posture
If PD, they will likely fall over
People with PD often have a reduced sense of ___.
Broadly, there are two subtypes of PD: ___-dominant and non-dominant.
temor non-dominant (emphasis on rigidity, postural instability)
What are some possible non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
Associated with DWLB - dementia, hallucinations
Describe two types of rigidity seen in Parkinson's disease.
Lead pipe rigidity - constant resistance to movement throughout a range of motion
Cogwheel rigidity - points of increased / decreased resistance to movement through a range of motion as muscle tension increases and decreases
You need to rule out ___ Parkinsonism or other neurological diseases before diagnosing PD.
Patients should be tested on drugs affecting which neurotransmitter before being diagnosed with PD?
Parkinson's disease is a diagnosis of ___.
What is the biggest risk factor for PD?