7: Parkinson's disease Flashcards Preview

Neurology Week 3 2018/19 > 7: Parkinson's disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Parkinson's disease Deck (38)
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1

Parkinson's disease becomes symptomatic (early / late) in its course.

late

2

Which pathway is most responsible for motor function?

Corticospinal tract

3

Which parts of the brain are responsible for adjusting movement information?

Basal ganglia

4

What is the role of the cerebellum in movement?

Coordination

5

What is the difference between Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism?

Parkinson's disease - specific disease process causing symptoms

Parkinsonism - PD-like symptoms caused by other factors e.g dopamine antagonists

6

Which gait is caused by damage to the cerebellum?

Ataxic gait

7

What are the five basal ganglia?

Caudate nucleus

Putamen

Globus pallidus

Substantia nigra

Subthalamic nucleus

8

What is the role of the basal ganglia?

Adjustment of movement impulses

9

Which neurotransmitters are involved in PD?

Dopamine 

Noradrenaline

Acetylcholine

Serotonin

10

Which basal ganglion degenerates in PD?

Substantial nigra

11

Which type of neuron is lost from the substantia nigra in PD?

Dopaminergic neuron

12

What is the hallmark of PD on histology?

Lewy bodies

13

___ bodies are a hallmark of PD.

Lewy bodies

14

Where in the brain is the substantia nigra found?

Brainstem 

15

Does PD spread from the substantia nigra?

Yes

16

___ neurons are lost from the substantia nigra in PD, causing (sensory / motor) symptoms.

Dopaminergic neurons

Motor symptoms

17

What are the motor symptoms of PD?

Resting tremor

Bradykinesia (slower movements)

Rigidity

Postural instability

18

Resting tremor in PD is (symmetrical/asymmetrical).

asymmetrical

best seen with hands in the lap

19

What is bradykinesia?

Reduced speed of movement

20

What is rigidity?

Increased muscle tone throughout a movement

Like dystonia - produces a stiff, "bent forward" posture

21

Where do PD patients experience rigidity?

Is it unilateral or bilateral?

Back, neck, limbs

Unilateral in limbs

22

How do you test postural stability in a patient?

Challenge standing posture

If PD, they will likely fall over

23

People with PD often have a reduced sense of ___.

smell

24

Broadly, there are two subtypes of PD: ___-dominant and non-dominant.

tremor dominant

temor non-dominant (emphasis on rigidity, postural instability)

25

What are some possible non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease?

Associated with DWLB - dementia, hallucinations

Anosmia

Sleep disorders

26

Describe two types of rigidity seen in Parkinson's disease.

Lead pipe rigidity - constant resistance to movement throughout a range of motion

Cogwheel rigidity - points of increased / decreased resistance to movement through a range of motion as muscle tension increases and decreases

27

You need to rule out ___ Parkinsonism or other neurological diseases before diagnosing PD.

secondary

28

Patients should be tested on drugs affecting which neurotransmitter before being diagnosed with PD?

dopamine

29

Parkinson's disease is a diagnosis of ___.

exclusion

30

What is the biggest risk factor for PD?

Increasing age