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Flashcards in 1 intro Deck (60):
1

white spots in back of throat

group A strep throat

2

measles

koplik's spots

3

measles

-highly contagious
-child should be quarantined

4

varicella zoster virus (shingles)

-1/2 of body has sores
-should not contact pregnant women

5

caries pathogen

strep mutans

6

pathogenic diseases found in oral cavity

caries, gingivitis, TB, pneumonia, whooping cough, gonorrhea, syphilis, clhlamydia

7

viruses found in oral cavity

influenza, measles, herpes simplex, epstein barr, hep B and C, HIV

8

how to think about infections

encounter
entry
spread
multiplication
damage
outcome

9

virulence

ability to cause disease

10

susceptibility of host

predisposition for infection

11

incubation period

time between exposure and onset of symptoms

12

reservoir

host species in which a pathogen can be maintained indefinitely with no or few ill effects

13

encounter: where pathogens come from?

environment, infected person, infected insect or animal, normal flora

14

types of transmission

vertical, horizontal, iatrogenic, nosocomial

15

vertical transmission

transplacental, birth, neonatal

16

horizontal

all other types

17

iatrogenic

by healthcare workers (nonsterile)

18

nosocomial

hospital setting

19

entry: how pathogens get insde

mucosa of respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital
cornea
skin

20

entry of pathogens that don't cross epithelial borders

inhalation
ingestion
sexual contact

21

entry or pathogens crossing epithelial barriers

insect bites
wounds
medical or dental procedures (organ transplants, blood transfusions)

22

spread

from original site or distant

23

rotavirus infects elsewhere after spread

entry in intestinal epithelium, local disease (diarrhea)

24

poliovirus infects elsewhere after spread

entry in the intestinal epithelium, then spread to blood, then to CNS (paralysis)

25

pathogen damages host directly

1. cell death bc of toxin or multiplication
2. altered cellular metabolism due to effects of toxin or multiplication
3 mechanical obstruction

26

pathogen damages host indirectly (host response)

1 damage due to inflammation
2 damage due to the immune response

27

possible outcomes of pathogen

host wins
organism wins
they coexist

28

microbiota (normal flora)

10x microbial than human cells

29

normally colonized areas

skin
nose and oropharynx
mouth
large intestine
genital system
urinary tract
eyes
lungs

30

low amounts of microbes in which areas

urinary tract, eyes, and lungs

31

normally sterile (no microbes)

blood
deep tissues and organs

32

microbiota may be good

keeps out invaders, stimulates the immune system

33

microbiota may be bad

colonization with a pathogenic microbe may increase the chances of developing disease

34

microbiota may be harmless

if microbes stay where they belong but may cause disease if they go elsewhere or if the host state changes (antibiotics, weakened immunity)

35

physical barriers for host defense

skin
mucous membranes
fluid flow like saliva + urine

36

chemical barriers for host defense

saliva + mucus

37

constitutive host defenses

inflammatory response
complement
phagocytoses

38

induced defenses

antibodies + T-cells

39

how do microbes avoid host defenses?

avoid being washed away by fluids like adhering to host cells with pili
-avoid complement (block complement activation)
-avoid phagocytosed by having a capsule
-avoid immune response by varying surface antigens

40

pili

-threadlike structures found on the bacterial surface
-contain adhesins that bind host cell receptors

41

how are infections treated

antibiotics

42

problem with antibiotics

-resistance
-do not work against viruses, fungi, and parasites
-diseases may be caused by bacterial toxins (botulism) instead of live bacteria

43

measles virus is also called

rubeola

44

symptoms of measles

fever
COUGH
CORYZA (runny nose)
CONJUNCTIVITIS ( red, watery eyes)

45

2-3 days after measles

koplik's spots (white spots in mouth)

46

3-5 days after measles

rash (head, then body)

47

encounter of measles

direct contact with airborne droplets

48

how long can measles survive for in the air

2 hours

49

entry of measles

respiratory tract

50

spread of measles

respiratory tract->blood (viremia)-> other organs like skin (rash)

51

damage from measles

virus (cytotoxicity) and host (imune response)

52

viremia

presence of viruses in blood

53

measles epidemiology

EXTREMELY INFECTIOUS- 4 days before the rash to 4 days after

54

live attenuated vaccine for Measles

MMR (measles, mumps, rubella . 1963)
2 doses: 1yr and 4-6 yr
lifelong immunity >95%
-has reduced measles in US from 4,000,000 to 50 cases/yr
-but epidemic since 2000

55

what causes measles cases and outbreaks

unvaccinated travellers to philippines where there was a huge outbreak
-travelers may bring it back from other countries
-measles are not common in US but still common in other parts of the world
-people who visit you from other countries can bring it with them

56

most people who got measles were

unvaccinated

57

mild measles complications

bacterial: otitis media, pneumonia
viral: pneumonia

58

severe measles complications

.1-.3% mortality among small children
-measles encephalitis (1 in 1000, week 2); 10-20% mortality
-subacute sclerosing pan encephalitis (SSPE) (1 in 1,000,000 cases, years later, usually fatal

59

important points about measles

highly contagious and NOT benign
-preventable by vaccination (safe, effective, no link to autism)

60

is there a link between autism and measles?

NO link between autism and measles