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Flashcards in 1. Koh - Adrenal Cortex Deck (20)
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1

What are the 4 principles of hormones?

1. Modifies rates of reactions
2. Affect cells remote from their origin via receptors
3. Actions terminated by metabolism (or excretion)
4. Response is dose dependent

2

Where is the adrenal cortex related?

On top of the kidney, the outer 3 layers of the adrenal gland

3

What are the three regions of the adrenal cortex, from most superficial to deepest?

1. Zona glomerulosa
2. Zona fasciculata
3. Zona reticularis

4

What hormones are produced in the zona glomerulosa?

Mineralcorticoids (MCs)

5

What hormones are produced in the zona fasciculata?

Glucocorticoids (GCs)

6

What hormones are produced in the zona reticularis?

Androgens (sex hormones)

7

What is the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis?

The adrenal cortex regulation, regulates when hormones are released.

8

What hormone comes the hypothalamus in the HPA? Where does it affect?

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), positively affects the pituitary gland.

9

What hormone is released from the pituitary gland? What does it affect?

Andrenocorticotropin (ACTH), positively affects the adrenal cortex

10

What hormone from the adrenal cortex send negative feedback to the rest of the HPA system?

Glucocorticoids send negative feedback to the pituitary gland and hypothalamus

11

What is the rate limiting step in hormone synthesis? What stimulates this step?

Cholesterol --> pregnenolone, stimulated by ACTH

12

What is the major pathway of hormone production? What is the minor pathway?

Major: GCs
Minor: androgens

13

What is the major releasing factor for MCs? What is the minor releasing factor?

Major: Angiotensinogen II and hyperkalemia
Minor: ACTH (from the pituitary)

14

What is the major releasing factor for GCs? What is the minor factor?

Major: ACTH
Minor: Stress

15

What hormone is essential for the functioning of the adrenal gland?

ACTH is essential!

16

What is the primary cause of excessive or insufficient levels of hormones?

Disorder is caused by the gland producing the hormone, essentially the adrenal gland isn't functioning as it should

17

What is defined as secondary excessive or insufficient hormone levels?

Secondary means the pituitary isn't functioning as it should

18

What is defined as tertiary excessive or insufficient levels of hormones?

Tertiary means that the hypothalamus isn't functioning as it should

19

How are endocrine disorders defined?

High or low levels of hormone and the source of the problem

20

What are the 3 criteria to be a hormone?

1. From a specific cell
2. Travels in blood
3. Affects cells away/remote from their origin