Flashcards in 1. Koh - Adrenal Cortex Deck (20)
What are the 4 principles of hormones?
1. Modifies rates of reactions
2. Affect cells remote from their origin via receptors
3. Actions terminated by metabolism (or excretion)
4. Response is dose dependent
Where is the adrenal cortex related?
On top of the kidney, the outer 3 layers of the adrenal gland
What are the three regions of the adrenal cortex, from most superficial to deepest?
1. Zona glomerulosa
2. Zona fasciculata
3. Zona reticularis
What hormones are produced in the zona glomerulosa?
What hormones are produced in the zona fasciculata?
What hormones are produced in the zona reticularis?
Androgens (sex hormones)
What is the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis?
The adrenal cortex regulation, regulates when hormones are released.
What hormone comes the hypothalamus in the HPA? Where does it affect?
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), positively affects the pituitary gland.
What hormone is released from the pituitary gland? What does it affect?
Andrenocorticotropin (ACTH), positively affects the adrenal cortex
What hormone from the adrenal cortex send negative feedback to the rest of the HPA system?
Glucocorticoids send negative feedback to the pituitary gland and hypothalamus
What is the rate limiting step in hormone synthesis? What stimulates this step?
Cholesterol --> pregnenolone, stimulated by ACTH
What is the major pathway of hormone production? What is the minor pathway?
What is the major releasing factor for MCs? What is the minor releasing factor?
Major: Angiotensinogen II and hyperkalemia
Minor: ACTH (from the pituitary)
What is the major releasing factor for GCs? What is the minor factor?
What hormone is essential for the functioning of the adrenal gland?
ACTH is essential!
What is the primary cause of excessive or insufficient levels of hormones?
Disorder is caused by the gland producing the hormone, essentially the adrenal gland isn't functioning as it should
What is defined as secondary excessive or insufficient hormone levels?
Secondary means the pituitary isn't functioning as it should
What is defined as tertiary excessive or insufficient levels of hormones?
Tertiary means that the hypothalamus isn't functioning as it should
How are endocrine disorders defined?
High or low levels of hormone and the source of the problem