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Flashcards in 4. Chrissobolis - DM Drugs Deck (71)
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1

What drug class does Metformin belong to?

Biguanides

2

What is the main function of Metformin?

Reduce hepatic glucose production

3

What are 2 the minor functions of Metformin?

1. Increase glucose uptake and utilization in skeletal muscle and adipose
2. Decrease glucose absorption in the GI tract

4

What is the main reason for Metformin therapy? - two things

1. Lower glucose levels
2. Improve insulin sensitivity

5

What does Metformin do at the cellular level?

Increases AMP, causing an increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in gluconeogenic pathways

6

What are the 5 brand name available formulations of Metformin? What 3 are extended release?

1. Glucophage
2. Rio met
3. Fortamet - ER
4. Glucophage XR - ER
5. Glumetza - ER

7

What is the black box warning for Metformin?

Lactic acidosis

8

What 3 conditions is Metformin not indicated for?

1. T1DM
2. Diabetic ketoacidosis
3. Heart Failure

9

What is the main action of TZDs?

Decrease insulin resistance

10

What is TZDs MOA?

Selective ligand for PPAR-y receptor

11

What is TZDs action in adipose tissue?

Increase FFA uptake and storage

12

What is TZDs action in the liver?

Enhances insulin signaling

13

What is TZDs action in macrophages?

Affects M2 and M1, promotes anti-inflammatory macrophages and protects against pro-inflammatory macrophages

14

What is the brand name of Pioglitazone? What class does it belong to?

Actos - TZD

15

What is the brand name of rosiglitazone? What class does it belong to?

Avandia - TZD

16

What are the three main side effects of TZDs?

1. Fractures in bones
2. HTN and edema
3. HF and MI

17

What is the brand name (hint, there's 2) of Exenatide? What drug class does it belong in?

Bydureon and Byetta - Short Acting GLP-1Ra

18

Why are long acting GLP-1Ra better than short acting GLP-1Ras?

Better overall glycemic control due to higher fasting insulin levels

19

What is the brand name (hint there's 2) for liraglutide? What drug class does it belong it?

Saxenda, Victoza - long acting GLP-1Ra

20

What is the brand name for albiglutide? What drug class does it belong to?

Tanzeum - long acting GLP-1Ra

21

What is the brand name for dulaglutide? What drug class does it belong to?

Trulicity - long acting GLP-1Ra

22

Where is metformin's main site of action?

In the liver

23

What is the MOA of DPP4i?

Inhibit the breakdown of GLP-1 and GIP by DPP4.

24

What is the brand name for sitaglpitin? What drug class does it belong to?

Januvia - DPP4i

25

What is the brand name for saxagliptin? What drug class does it belong to?

Onglyza - DPP4i

26

What is the brand name for linagliptin? What drug class does it belong to?

Trajenta - DPP4i

27

What is the brand name for alogliptin? What drug class does it belong to?

Nesina - DPP4i

28

What are the main SE of DPP4is?

Severe joint pain and increased risk of acute pancreatitis

29

What is the MOA of sulfonylureas?

Increase insulin release by biding to SUR1 receptor on pancreatic beta cells

30

What are the three brand names of glipizide? What drug class do they belong to?

Glipizide XL, glucotrol, glucotrol XL - Sulfonylureas