1. Musculoskeletal - Introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. Musculoskeletal - Introduction Deck (57):
1

Ligament

Connects bone to bone; weakest at ends

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Tendon

Connects muscle to bone

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Bursa

Fluid filled sac in between tendon and bone that reduces friction

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Fascia

Fribrous membrane that covers, supports, and separates muscles

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Synovial capsule

sac-like structure enclosing bone ends, present at almost every joint

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Periosteum

Fibrous membrane that covers bone except at bone ends

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Intra-articular cartilage

dense connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones inside the joint capsule (i.e. meniscus in knee)

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Edema

edema within connective tissue or OUTSIDE the joint capsule

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Effusion

edema INSIDE the joint capsule

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Hemarthrosis

Blood in the joint

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Ecchymosis

Bruise

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Crepitus

crackling from inflammation or fractured bone ends

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Symptom

subjective complaint by patient

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Sign

Objective observation by provider

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Acute

Sudden onset of symptoms within a short duration (sprain, fracture)

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Chronic

Gradual onset of symptoms with longer duration, usually >2-3 weeks

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sPrain

Stretch/tear of a LIGAMENT or CAPSULE; 3 degrees-stretching; incomplete tearing & rupturing

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sTrain

Stretch or tear of TENDON or MUSCLE

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Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendon

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Tenosynovitis

Inflammation of tendon and synovium

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Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint

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Bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa

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Fasciitis

Inflammation of fascia

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Osteomyelitis

Infection of a bone

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Fracture

Breaking of a bone

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Dislocation

Movement of a bone from its natural position that has to be reduced; 80% CHANCE OF RECURRENCE; Most common joints = fingers, shoulder, patella

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Subluxation

Same as dislocation but it returns to original position on its own; partial dislocation

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Osteomalacia

Softening of the bone

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Osteoporosis

Weakening of the bone

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Kyphosis

Rounding of the thoracic curve; hump back

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Lordosis

Exaggerated lumbar curve; sway back

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Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine

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SponDYLOsis

DEGENERATION of vertebra

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SponDYLOLYsis

Defect in vertebra ("Scottie dog fracture")

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SpondylOLITHEsis

Anterior slippage or subluxation of vertebra ("Scottie dog decapitated"

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Coronal plane

front to back

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Frontal plane

front to back

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Transverse plane

Top to bottom

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Horizontal plane

Top to bottom

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Sagittal plane

Right to left

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Concentric resistance

Resistance during shortening of muscle

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Eccentric resistance

Resistance with lengthening of muscle

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Isometric

Muscle contraction without joint movement

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Grade 0 (zero)

No muscular contraction

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Grade 1 (trace)

Slight contractility, no motion

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Grade 2- (poor -)

Initiates movement if gravity eliminated

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Grade 2 (poor)

Complete RoM w/o gravity

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Grade 2+ (poor +)

Initiates RoM against gravity

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Grade 3- (fair -)

Some RoM against gravity

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Grade 3 (fair)

Complete RoM against gravity

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Grade 3+ (fair +)

Complete RoM against gravity w/ min resistance

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Grade 4 (good)

Complete RoM against gravity w/ moderate resistance

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Grade 5 (normal)

Complete RoM against gravity w/ max resistance

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Palpation

Intelligent laying of hands to feel bony and soft tissue landmarks to elicit a subjective response from patient

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When to use orthopedic tests

Used to substantiate diagnosis, not to diagnose; should back u pwhat you think is occuring from history

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When to use neuro tests

To assess peripheral nerve damage, spinal nerve root damage, spinal cord damage

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Neuro tests used in Ortho

DTRs, sensation testing, sharp/dull discrimination; vibratory