1: The Impact Of The Depression Flashcards Preview

GCSE History - British Depth Study (old spec) > 1: The Impact Of The Depression > Flashcards

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1

What was the national insurance benefit and when was it set up?

1911
It's a benefit that covers workers in a dew industries like shipbuilding where work was not steady
One of the few financial supports workers had at the end of WW1

2

What was the unemployment fund?

Workers and employers paid into the unemployment fund and if work dried up, the fund paid benefit for up to 15 weeks

3

What did the government do in November 1918 to help the unemployed?

The government set up an Out-of-Work donation scheme aka the Dole which paid a small amount of benefit. The scheme was set up to help returning soldiers and war workers who couldn't find a job.

4

What did the Depression do to Britain after WWI?

Made unemployment much worse. In 1929 unemployment was 1.5 million but in 1930 it had risen to 2.4 million.

5

Why were there hunger marches?

Unemployed were unhappy about the amount of support they had from the government and there were frequent marches organised by the National Unemployed Workers Movement to gain publicity from the government to get more benefits.

6

In which industries and parts of Britain was unemployment the highest in the 1930s?

Coal, iron and steel, cotton and shipbuilding industries
North and East of England, Scotland and Wales

7

What was the percentage unemployed in 1929 compared to 1932?

1929 - 8% unemployed
1932 - 17% unemployed

8

What was the percentage of unemployed in 1932 in London, Scotland and Wales?

London - 13.5%
Wales - 36.5%
Scotland - 27.7%

9

Who came into power in 1929 and what did the government need to sort out?

Labour - Ramsay MacDonald
The government needed money but the depression made it very hard to borrow money.

10

What did the government do in 1929 to improve the failing economy?

They made huge spending cuts. They cut wages of government workers by 10-15%

11

What did the government start to do to the unemployed in August 1931? What was the result?

They wanted to cut benefit rates by 15% to set up a means test. This test allowed officials to visit the benefit claimer's home to examine the living conditions (to make sure they're poor enough) and they had a right to know the amount of savings and money other family members earned. However most ministers disagreed with this because they thought it caused to much hardship and the government collapsed.

12

Who is involved in the National Government?

Labour
Liberal
Conservative

13

What and when was the Special Areas Act?

1934
£2 million aid for the unemployed in Scotland, the North East, the North West and South Wales

14

What and when was the Unemployment Act?

1934
It made a clear division between National Insurance payments and the dole. National Unemployment Assistance Board was to run the dole from taxes.

15

What was the employment exchange?

The unemployed had to go to the employment exchange at least once a week to register as looking for work and to collect your money.

16

What percentage of people had to live with less than the minimum money for food nourishment in 1938?

44% of people that were getting the dole

17

What was so shocking about Alfred Smith and his family?

Smith, his wife and his 4 children lived in a four room house with a tiny kitchen and he had been unemployed for 3 years. He spent most of his time looking for work. The family's weekly budget was about £3 and Smith was extremely ill - mentally&physically. His story got posted in a newspaper to show the horror of some of the families without employment.

18

What was shipbuilding like in the 1930s?

They suffered high levels of unemployment. Shipbuilders set up the National Shipbuilders' Security Ltd to rationalise the industry, making it more efficient. They closed down a lot of shipbuilding places (including the one in Jarrow). Some shipbuilding areas were part of the Special Areas Act but it didn't cover everyone.

19

What is Jarrow and why was unemployment so high there?

It's a town in Tyneside that was part of the Special Areas Act but they were never given the government contract as they had no industry to apply for it. Most workers in Jarrow worked at Palmers Shipyard but the NSS closed it down and unemployment in Jarrow was then 64% - many people were starving.

20

What was the employment exchange?

The unemployed had to go to the employment exchange at least once a week to register as looking for work and to collect your money.

21

What percentage of people had to live with less than the minimum money for food nourishment in 1938?

44% of people that were getting the dole

22

What was so shocking about Alfred Smith and his family?

Smith, his wife and his 4 children lived in a four room house with a tiny kitchen and he had been unemployed for 3 years. He spent most of his time looking for work. The family's weekly budget was about £3 and Smith was extremely ill - mentally&physically. His story got posted in a newspaper to show the horror of some of the families without employment.

23

What was shipbuilding like in the 1930s?

They suffered high levels of unemployment. Shipbuilders set up the National Shipbuilders' Security Ltd to rationalise the industry, making it more efficient. They closed down a lot of shipbuilding places (including the one in Jarrow). Some shipbuilding areas were part of the Special Areas Act but it didn't cover everyone.

24

What is Jarrow and why was unemployment so high there?

It's a town in Tyneside that was part of the Special Areas Act but they were never given the government contract as they had no industry to apply for it. Most workers in Jarrow worked at Palmers Shipyard but the NSS closed it down and unemployment in Jarrow was then 64% - many people were starving.

25

When did the NUWM organise a National Hunger March to London?

1936

26

Why did Jarrow March with the NUWM?

They thought they'd get more recognition if they went independently

27

Why was the march called the Jarrow Crusade?

To give it more respectability

28

What happened on the Jarrow Crusade?

They covered 291 miles in 22 stages. They often held public meetings to explain why they were marching.

29

What was the government reaction of the Jarrow Crusade?

They didn't accept the petition. The cabinet disapproved of all the marches. The government stopped the marchers benefit payments while they were protesting. The Jarrow unemployment offered one job for one person but he refused it.

30

What were some gains of the Jarrow Crusade?

Several people were offered work but had to leave Jarrow. John Jarvis (MP) set up a steel work in Jarrow but it only employed 200 men.