Flashcards in 3: Britain At War Deck (20)
When was the Women's Land Army reformed?
What was the conscription for women?
8th December 1941 the government introduced conscription for all unmarried women aged 20-30 and they had to do vital work to help the war. As the war went on lots of other women were conscripted. They worked in armed services, civil defence or industry. 100,000 women by 1943 were working on the railways which was classed as a "man" job.
What are some examples of women's services during the war?
ATS - army
WAAF - airforce
Wrens - navy
What are some examples of work women were doing in the war?
At the start it was mainly cleaning, cooking or office work.
Women couldn't go into battle, however, as the war went on women became drivers, worked on anti-aircraft posts, radio operators, motorbike messengers and spies.
What happened to women after the war?
Women had to give up their jobs for the returning men. But, attitudes to women changed. Women were starting to get more "masculine" jobs and employment rate for women increased. There was a lot more respect for women and stereotypes for women started to disappear.
Between 1931 and 1951 there was a 9% increase of women working.
When and what were some ministries set up for the war?
Ministry of Supply - organised the production of war supplies like iron and steel
Ministry of Labour - organised armed services and the war effort on the home front
Ministry of Information - propaganda and censorship
Coal mining also came under government control
What was censorship like during the war?
The Ministry of Information had to work in propaganda and censorship. Censorship stopped certain information reaching newspapers and radios for the public to hear. The government didn't want to demoralise the British public. They even censored letters going abroad and coming into the country. The armed services had their own censors to go through the troops mail.
What was propaganda like during the war for Britain?
There were multiple posters and leaflets to persuade people to do or not do certain things during the war. Also there were also films showing how to move safely in a blackout or how to dig a vegetable plot. There were lots of patriotic newsreels which were shown at the cinema and st village halls.
When did the Ministry of Food begin food control?
When did rationing begin?
8th January 1940
What were the three kinds of rationing?
Rationing food like butter by weight
Rationing dried goods and tinned goods on a point system
Government control of foods like orange juice or milk where babies, pregnant women or the sick were given supplies first.
What else did the ministry of food encourage other than rationing?
Grow your own food
Keep chickens and rabbits
Local parks turned into allotments
Even the moat around the Tower of London was dug and planted
Pig clubs were formed where lots of people bought a pig and cared for it and shared the meat when it was killed.
Broadcasts were made giving tips and recipes for making food go further.
What happened on the 7th December 1941?
The Japanese who were allies of Germany bombed the us naval base at pearl harbour. The USA then decided they'd enter the war against Germany and Japan.
What was operation overlord?
Britain convinced US generals that an invasion had to be carefully planned. They leaked false information so Germany thought they were going to attack another part of France. The date was also changed several times.
When was d day?
6th June 1944
Why was d day successful?
Careful planning and preparation. Germany thought the attack would be near Calais not Normandy. Radar stations were attacked which meant German forces couldn't see the forces coming. The troops attacked multiple areas along the coast which threw off Germans. A fuel pipeline was there which constantly refuelled troops. USA also supplied troops with a lot of equipment.
Why was Germany under pressure near the end of the war?
There was lots of bombing in German industrial sites, military bases and cities which was much heavier than the blitz.
Britain had radars to find enemy submarines and planes.
Road and rail links were destroyed in Germany.
What happened in Arnhem in December 1944?
US and British forces tried to liberate the Netherlands and take control of the road networks and cross the Rhine into Germany. The plans were hurried and only 2827 of the 10300 troops survived.
What happened after the German victory in Arnhem?
The Germans launched a surprise a counterattack called the Battle of the Bulge. Germany lost a lot of men who they couldn't replace while the allies bought in reinforcements.