Flashcards in 10/5 Intro to Pharmacology Deck (25):
What is the basic path of drug discovery?
Observation; Trial and Error; Pharmacognosy; Experimentation; Manufacturing
The most prescribed drug in the U.S. and the brain child of Merck
Traditional drug discovery pathway
Natural product, purify the molecule of effect, merchandise or market the molecule by "perfecting" it
what is rational drug design
Consider the target of interest and design a drug to act on that specific target.
What is bioassay guided drug descovery?
have a specific molecule or process and test a lot of compounds against this molecule to see if there is any effect.
what are the basic purposes of Phase I,II,III,IV studies?
I: first in human
II: first in patient
III: multi-site trial
IV: post-marketing surveillance
what is a small molecule vs. a biologic?
Small Molecules: small, usually carbon hydrogen nitrogen, natural product, or synthetic, easily draw out the structure.
Bilogics: natural products like hormones, estrogens, thyroid or synthetic hormones and hormone analogs. larger more complex structures.
what is a brand name drug?
new, patent protected drug, 20 years from filing date for patents.
what is a generic drug?
a drug that is developed under an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), same active ingredient, strength, dosage form, and route of administration as the brand name product. don't need the same inactive ingredients. bioequivalent to the brand name drug.
what must be proved for FDA approval
proof of non-toxic, proof of safety and efficacy
what are the main departments of drug control?
FDA; Drug endorcement and administration (DEA); and state board of pharmacy, controlled substance database.
what are the 7 core concepts of pharmacology or what should we consider before prescribing?
1. mech. of action
2. absorption and distribution;
3. metabolism and excretion;
4. assessing drug therapy;
5. adverse effects and toxicity
6. Drug interactions
7. therapeutic uses/ indications
the movement of drugs through and out of the body
the intereaction of the drug with target cellualr components, and effect of medicaitons on the human body, how the drug acts
what genetic differences do to the individual responses to drugs?
what is an Enteral administration of a drug?
it is through alimentary canal, oral, sublingual, buccal, rectal
what is parenteral administration of a drug?
intrumuscular, subcutaneous, transdermal, intranasal, epidural, topical
what is active vs. passive movement of a drug?
special carrier molecules, like aminoacids, sugars, drugs that resemble endogenous substances, or passive movement would be diffusion of lipophilic drugs across lipid membranes.
pH of the medium is relevent to the administratio of a drug, but how?
protonated form of weak acid is uncharged, and more lipid soluble, while the unprotonated form is uncharged, more lipid-soluble.
the time it takes for a substance to lose half of its pharmacologic physiologic, or radiologic activity
the biological half-life or terminal half-life of a substance
what is a agonist vs. antagonist?
agonist activates, or stimulates the receptors, antagonist blocks the access or attachment of body's natural agonist
what are drugs that are activators or inhibitors?
drugs that act to either activate or inhibit the activity of specific enzymes/protein/pathway i.e. protease inhibitors
may be termed a side-effect when jugded to be secondary to the main clinical effect
WHO six-step approach to prescribing
1. evaluate and clearly define the problem
2. specify the therapeutic objective
3. select the appropriate drug therapy
4. initiate therapy with appropriate details and consider non-pharmacologic therpies
5. give information, instructions and warnings
6. evaluate therapy regularly
think costs and use of computers and other tools to reduce prescribing errors.