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Flashcards in 10 things Deck (38):

Target marketing

A marketing mix that is tailored to fit some specific target customers



An aggregating process that clusters people with similar needs into a market segment



An approach that refers to how customers think about proposed or present brands in a market



The marketing mix is distinct from and better than what's available from a competitor


Customer Satisfaction

The extent to which a firm fulfills a consumer's needs, desires, and expectations


Micro-macro dilemma

What s good for some producers and consumers may not be good for society as a whole


Why is customer satisfaction important in the U.S.?

Our basic objective of our market-directd economic system has been to satisfy consumer nees as they, the consumers, see them

This objective implies that political freedom and economic freedom go hand in hand and that citizens in a free society have the right to live as they choose


Why should you get your customers to complain?

Majority of customer complaints are never reported

Many complaints that are reported never get fully resolved


Pricing objectives

Pricing oriented 

sales oriented

status quo oriented


Profit oriented pricing objetive

Target return

Maximize profits



Sales oriented pricing objective

Dollar or unit sales growth

Growth in market share


Status quo oriented pricing objective

Meeting competition

Nonprice competition


One price policy

Makes pricing easier

Competitors can easily undercut if price is high


Flexible-price policy

Frequent changes to prices are easier

Can lead to a lower price and lower profit

comomon in business products and at retail for expensive shopping products

People can get unhappy if other customers paid cheaper

can increase selling costs and frustrate customers


Skimming pricing policy

Trie to sell the top of the market at a high price before aiming at more price-senstive customers

situation: if few substitutes or if customers are not price sensitive

when you dont know much about the demand curve


Penetration pricing policy

Tries to sell the whole market at one low price

Used for elite market is small

if selling large quantities results in lower costs because of economies of scale

if firm expects strong competition very soon after introduction


Geographic pricing 


Zone pricing

Uniform delivered pricing

Freight absorption pricing


Relationship between stockturn and markup

IF people can sell a much greater amount in the same time period the may be able to take a lower markup and still earn a higher profits

increasing their stockturn rate


Factors that affect sensitivity

When customers have substitute ways of meeting a need they are likely to be more price sensitive

compare prices

People are less price senstive when someone else pays the bill or share sthe cost

custoemers are more price senstive the greater the total expenditure

less price sensitive th egreater the significance of the end benefit of the purchase


Retailer's "whole" offer


Product selection

Special services

Fairness in dealings

Helpful information


social and emotial needs: social image, shoppng atmosphere


single line/limited line store

Stores that specialize in certain lines of related products rather than a wide assortment


First year failiure rates of retailers

3/4 of new retailing ventures fail during the first year


Expanded asortment and service

Specialty shops and department stores


Expanded assortment and/or reduced margins and service

Supermarkets, discount hoouses, superstores, club stores



Added convenience and higher than conventional margins, usually reduced assortment

Convenience stores, vending machines, door-to-door, telephone and some electornic retailng


Expanded assortment, reduced margins and more information



Scrambled merchandising

Carrying any product lines they think they can sell profitly

super markets and drugstores sell anything they can move in volume


Advantages of a corprate change

They take advantage of quantity discounts and develop their own efficient distribution centers

use computer networks

spread promotion ifnrmation and management costs to many stores


Difference between merchant wholesalers and merchant middlemen

Merchan wholesalers Own (take title to) the products they sell

Agent middlement do not own the products they sell


When does it make sense to go direct distribution?

The internet makes directi distribution easier

Direct contat with customers

Suitable intermediaries are not available

Common with business customers and services

Some consumer products are sold direct


When indirect channels are best

Some consumers prefer to shop at specific places

Limited financial resources or wants to retain flexibility will go indirect

Indirect further reduces the need for working capital


Direct marketing

Direct communication between a seller and an indiidual customer using a promotion method other than face-to-face personal selling


Regrouping activities


adjust the quantiities or assortments of products handled at each level in a channel of distribution

fix discrepancy of quantity and discrepancy of assortment


Difference between vertical and horizontal conflict

vertical conflict => occur between firms at different levels in the channel of distribution

ex. wherehouse ent. started to sell used CDs several recording companies said they would halt payments to any retailer that sold used CDs

Horizontal conflict => occur between firms at the same level in the channel of distiribution 

ex. bike store that keeps bikes on hand isnt happy that there is an online store that offers lower prices


Ideal market exposure

Makes a product available widely enough to satisfy target customers' needs but not exceed them

intensive distribution - selling a product through all responsible and suitable wholesalers or retailers who will stock or sell the product

selective distribution - selling through only those intermediaries who will give the product special attention

exclusive distribution - selling through only one interemediary in a partiuclar geographic area


horizontal and vertical distribution arrangements


horizontal arrangements - among competing retailers, wholesalers or producers to limit sales by customer or territory have consistently been ruled illegal by the U.S. supreme court

vertical arrangements - between producers and intermediaries

may or may not be illegal


Reverse channels

Help the enviornment can also be profitable

a way to give customers enviornmentaly friendly choices