After Quiz 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in After Quiz 6 Deck (59)
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1
Q

Cornea

A

Transparent & circular front part of the eye that covers the: iris, pupil, & anterior chamber
Provides most of eye’s optical power
Light hits the cornea, bends (refracts) incoming light onto the lens

2
Q

Sclera

A

Opaque, fibrous, & collagenous protective layer of the eye

Helps maintain rigidity

3
Q

Limbus

A

Corneoscleral junction

Where cornea meets sclera

4
Q

Uvea

A

Deep to sclera

Consists of choroid, ciliary body, & iris (contains the pupil)

5
Q

Choroid

A

Vascular layer of the eye, located between the retina & the sclera

6
Q

Ciliary body

A

Located between iris & choroids

Contains many muscle bundles that regulate the shape of the lens

7
Q

Iris

A

Overlays the lens
Controls the amount of light that enters the eye (along with the pupil
Made of thin, elastic tissue with an opening (pupil) in the center; surrounded by a circular muscle (the sphincter)
It contains pigmented epithelium

8
Q

Pupil

A

Controls the amount of light that enters the eye (along with the iris)
During low light = expands
During high light = contracts

9
Q

Retina

A

Thin layer of neural cells along the back of the eyeball
Where light is converted into electrical impulses & sent along the optic nerve to the brain
Made of rods (dim light vision), cones (color vision), & photoreceptor cells

10
Q

Zonule

A

Suspensory ligaments of the lens
Composed of zonular fibers
- Change tension via contraction & relaxation of the ciliary muscle to change the focusing power of the eye (contradictory)

11
Q

Lens

A

Biconvex, transparent, & elastic structure that focuses the light coming in through the cornea & pupil
Loses its accommodation ability as the individual ages (called presbyopia)
Three parts:
- Lens capsule
- Lens epithelium
- Lens fibers

12
Q

Lens capsule

A

Elastic & composed of collagen

13
Q

Lens epithelium

A

Regulate most of the homeostatic functions of the lens

14
Q

Lens fibers

A

Form the bulk of the lens

15
Q

Vitreous humor

A

Clear, jelly-like aqueous solution that fills the space between the lens & retina
maintains the shape of the eyeball & provides clear path for light to travel to the retina

16
Q

Aqueous humor

A

Fills the space between the cornea & the lens
Provides nutrients to the lens & corneal endothelium
Its pressure maintains the convex shape of the cornea

17
Q

Anterior chamber

A

Fluid filled space between the cornea & iris

18
Q

Posterior chamber

A

Narrow cavity between the iris & lens

19
Q

Scleral sinus

A

Critical area for drainage of aqueous humor from the eyeball

*failure to drain = inc. intraocular pressure (glaucoma)

20
Q

Tapetum lucidum

A

Light-colored, reflective area of choroid
Reflects light rays (improves vision in low-light conditions)
Found mostly in nocturnal animals

21
Q

Nontapetal nigrum

A

Brown-black portion of interior of the eyeball

22
Q

Optic disk

A

Entrance of optic nerve into posterior aspect of the eyeball

Contains no rods or cones (called the blind spot)

23
Q

External jugular vein

A

Formed by meeting of linguofacial & maxillary veins

24
Q

Linguofacial vein

A

Two major branches:
Lingual vein
Facial vein

25
Q

Lingual vein

A

Drains blood from tongue larynx, & pharynx

26
Q

Facial vein

A

Drains blood from the face

27
Q

Maxillary vein

A

Drains blood from the ear, orbit, palate, nasal cavity, cheek, mandible, & cranial cavity

28
Q

Facial nerve

A

Nerve VII

Supplies all superficial muscles of head & face, along with digastricus m (caudal belly) & platysma

29
Q

Caudal thyroid artery

A

Supplies:
Trachea
Esophagus
Thyroid

30
Q

Cranial thyroid artery

A
Supplies:
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland
Pharynx-larynx mm.
Sternocephalicus m.
Cleidocephalicus m. (mastoid part)
31
Q

Internal carotid artery

A

Major artery of head & neck
Supplies:
Brain

32
Q

External carotid artery

A
Supplies structures within:
Neck
Face
Scalp
Maxilla
Tongue
33
Q

Occipital artery

A

Supplies caudal muscles of:
Skull
Meninges

34
Q

Cranial laryngeal artery

A

Supplies larynx ___:
muscles
Mucous membrane
Glands

35
Q

Lingual artery

A

Supplies:
Tongue
Tonsil

36
Q

Facial artery

A

Supplies:
Lips
Nose

37
Q

Caudal auricular artery

A

Supplies:

Ears

38
Q

Superficial temporal artery

A
Supplies:
Parotid gland
Masseter m.
Temporal m.
Auricular m.
Eyelids
39
Q

Maxillary artery

A

Supplies:
Deep structures of the face
Alar canal

40
Q

Inferior alveolar artery

A

Supplies:
Roots of lower jaw teeth
Skin (via mental branch)

41
Q

Middle meningeal artery

A

Passes through oval foramen
Supplies:
Dura mater (via brain)

42
Q

Infraorbital artery

A

Runs through maxilla bone -> under orbit of the eye
Supplies:
Some eye muscles

43
Q

Cranial nerves

A

12
Emerge from or enter the brain through foramina of the skull
Sensory, motor, or mixed

44
Q

Olfactory nerve

A

Cranial Nerve I
Supplies:
Olfactory bulbs
Vomeronasal organ

45
Q

Optic nerve

A

Cranial Nerve II
Supplies:
Eyes (sight)

46
Q

Oculomotor nerve

A

Cranial Nerve III
Supplies:
Muscles of the eyeball

47
Q

Trochlear nerve

A

Cranial Nerve IV
Supplies:
Dorsal oblique muscle

48
Q

Trigeminal nerve

A
Cranial Nerve V
Three nerves:
Opthalmic n.
Maxillary n.
Mandibular n.
49
Q

Opthalmic nerve

A
Sensory nerve
Supplies:
Eyelids
Eyeballs
Nasal mucosa
Skin of the nose
50
Q

Maxillary nerve

A
Sensory nerve
Supplies:
Superior eyelid
Nasal mucosa
Superior teeth
Superior lip
Nose
Lacrimal gland
Nasal gland
Palatine gland
51
Q

Mandibular nerve

A
Sensory & motor nerve
Supplies:
Masseter m.
Temporal m.
Mucosa of the cheeks
Lateral & medial pterygoid mm.
Lower teeth
Rostral/middle tongue
Rostral belly of the digastricus m.
52
Q

Abducent nerve

A

Cranial Nerve VI
Supplies:
Retractor bulbi m.
Lateral rectus m.

53
Q

Facial nerve

A
Cranial Nerve VII
Supplies:
Platysma
Buccinator
Orbicularis oris
Orbicularis oculi
Levator nasolabialis
Retractor anguli oculi lateralis
Digastricus m.  (caudal belly)
54
Q

Vestibulocochlear nerve

A

Cranial Nerve VIII
Supplies:
Ears
Provides sense of hearing & balance

55
Q

Glossopharyngeal nerve

A
Cranial Nerve IX
Supplies:
Tonsils of tongue
Root of tongue
Mucosa & muscles of pharynx
56
Q

Vagus nerve

A
Cranial Nerve X
Gives off R & L recurrent laryngeal nerves
Supplies:
Eyes
Salivary glands
Bronchi
Esophagus
Organs (Heart, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidneys, small intestines, colon)
57
Q

L & R laryngeal nerves

A

Innervate:
trachea
Esophagus
Laryngeal mm.

58
Q

Accessory nerve

A
Cranial Nerve XI
Supplies:
Trapezius
Omotransversarius m.
Sternocephalicus m. 
Cleidocephalicus m.
59
Q

Hypoglossal nerve

A
Cranial Nerve XII
Supplies:
Motor to muscles of the tongue (intrinsic/extrinsic)
Genihyoideus m.
Thyrohoideus m.