Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 1 Deck (32)
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1
Q

The scientific study of the onset and frequency of disorders in certain populations.

A

epidemiology

2
Q
  • deviations from social expectations,
  • conditions that clinicans treat,
  • labels applied to unpopular behavior,
  • conditions causing subjective distress and unhappiness, and
  • dysfunctions or breakdowns in a biological or psychological process that lead to harm.
A

Mental Disorders

3
Q

A classification system containing categories of disorders and rules for categorizing disorders depending on observable signs and symptoms.

A

nosology

4
Q

The proability that a person with a mental disorder is diagnosed as having that disorder.

A

sensitivity

5
Q

The proability that a person without and mental disorder will be diagnosed as having no disorder.

A

specificity

6
Q

the clinician correctly concludes that a condition is present.

A

true positive

7
Q

occurs when the clinician correctly states that the person does not have the condition.

A

true negative

8
Q

occurs when the clinician concludes that the person suffers a mental disorder when no disorder is, in fact, present.

A

false positive

9
Q

occurs when the clinician diagnoses no mental disorder when the person actually has one.

A

false negative

10
Q

The three maor steps in assessment and diagnosis are:

A
  1. gather information,
  2. organizing the information into a clinical description of the person, and
  3. using this description and a nosology to reach a dianosis.
11
Q

Interview:

The Schedule of Affecive Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS)

A

Purpose:

Differential diagnosis of more than 20 categories of mental disorder

12
Q

Interview:

The Dianostic Interview Schedule (DIS), which led to the Composite Interview (CID)

A

Purpose:

Used by nonprofessionals in large-scale epidermiological studies of mental disorder

13
Q

Interview:

Structured Clinical Interview Schdule for DSM (SCID)

A

Purpose:

Broad-scale differential diagnoses tied to the DSM criteria

14
Q

Interview:

Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R)

A

Purpose:

Parallel formats for chidren and parents for making differential dianoses of childhood disorders

15
Q

Interview:

Interview: Aniety Disorders Interview-IV

A

Purpose:

Differential diagnoses among anxiety disorders

16
Q

Interview:

Personality Disorders Interview-IV

A

Purpose:

Differential diagnoses among the DSM personality disorders

17
Q

Interview:

Interdisciplinary Fitness Interview, Revised (IFI-R)

A

Purpose:

Evalution of competence to stand trail

18
Q

Interview:

Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales (R-CRAS)

A

Purpose:

Assess criminal responsibility against specific legal criteria

19
Q

Interview:

Psychopathy Checklist, REvised (PCL-R)

A

Purpose:

Evaluation of major dmensions of psychopathic (antisocial) behavior

20
Q

Tests test measure the range and strength of a person’s interests, attitudes, preferences, and values.

A

attitude and interest tests

21
Q

psychological assessment tool that measures deficits in behavior, cognition, or emotion known to cognition, or emotion known to correlate with brain dysfunction and damage, and helps to determine whether a person is suffering from brain damage or deterioration.

A

neuropsychological test

22
Q

A system for diagnosing mental disorders and desribing a person along several dimensions and axes.

ex: physical heatlh, psychosocial and environmental problems, and global functioning

A

multiaxial classification

23
Q

In DSM 4, the dimension that contained 16 general groupings of major mental disorders.

A

Axis 1

24
Q

In DSM-4, the dimension that consisted of 10 personality disorders and mental retardation.

DSM-5 now includes there 10 disorders with all the other (former Axis 1) disorders on a single axis.

A

Axis 2

25
Q

In DSM-4, the dimension where clinicians listed general medical conditions that could be relevant to understanding or treating a person’s mental disorder.

Using DSM-5, medical conditions are simply listed along with the mental disorders on the same axis.

A

Axis 3

26
Q

In DSM-4, the dimension where clinicians recorded psychosocial and environmental stressors that could affect the diagnosis, treatment, and course of a mental disorders on the same axis.

A

Axis 4

27
Q

In DSM-4, the dimension on which clinicans rated a person’s overall level of functioning at the time of the evaluation, giving a summary assessment of the person’s general clinical status and providing a gauge for how well the person responded to treatment.

DSM-5 encourages use of the WHODAS system instead

A

Axis 5

28
Q

These include a group of conditions with onset in the developmental period (i.e., childhood)

Intellectual disabilites, learning disorders, communication disorders, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and several other problem behaviors typically associated with childhood.

Chapter 3

A

Neurodevelopmental disorders

29
Q

These involve the inapprorate elimation of urine or feces and are usually first diagnosed in childhood or adolescence.

Chapter 3

A

Elimination Disorders

30
Q

These include conditions involving problems in the self-control of emotions and behaviors. Although there is no set age limit for these disorders, they usually appear at least by adolescence.

Chapter 3

A

Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders

31
Q

Typically involve serious disturbances in a person’s perception and thinking, emotional responsiveness,and behavoiral appropriateness. Several bizzare symptoms can be present in a psychosis; the most prominent usually involve distorted perceptions and thinking.

A

schizophrenia spectrum and other pschotic disorders

32
Q

These disorders, involv disturbances in emotion and usually entail shifts between periods of depression and periods of highly

A

Bipolar and related disorders