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Flashcards in 11 Light Sensitivity & Spatial Resolution Deck (59)
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1

Why do we have two photoreceptors?

Our species lives on a planet that has day and night

Slide 1

2

If more than one photons was needed to activate one receptor they would have to be ________

synchronous

Slide 2

3

For a rod that needed two photons to respond, light intensity has to increase

102,000

Slide 2

4

Chances of two photons captured by the same rod at the same time ( within 100 ms) ?

once every 16 years

Slide 2

5

Dim light is _____

NOISY. We can very reliably distinguish objects from one from the other.

Slide 3

6

Objects (at day and night) are seen against a _______ background

Noisy

Slide 4

7

What stops noisy background noise?

All the physiology we have talked about (horizontal cells, etc)

Slide 4

8

Rods are _____ but they are _______

noisy, reliable

Slide 5

9

Why are rods so noisy?

They fire spontaneously, even when they do not have a photon to activate them

Slide 5

10

Rods fire spontaneously every _____ minute(s).

2

Slide 5

11

what does "eigengrau" mean?

Spontaneous activity (in German)

Slide 5

12

In the picture in Slide 5 there are 3 colors. What does each mean?

Black =
Red =
Green =

Photon catch on rod of:

black = star
red = sky
green = eigengrau, rod pretends to catch photon

Slide 5

13

***Picture in slide 6, important concept.

Rods will _________

saturate

Slide 6

14

Rods will capture to 1, 2, 3 photons and _____ their amplitude of response.

At some point rods will _______ and stop increasing the amplitude of response.

increase, saturate

The rod cannot keep increasing their respond because what if 100 photons hit it? No....

Slide 6

15

If rods saturate, what does this mean for day light?

They are at their max response rate

16

Dynamic range of rods is ____ log units?

6

17

Summing responses of photons in rods is ___ log units?

2

18

A single rod can pick up a single photon within ___ seconds

30

19

In what conditions do rods do their best?

Dim light

20

Rods help detect slight gradations in what color?

Black/Grey

21

True/False: Rod bipolar cells receive the response from a single photon from a single rod (or from upwards of 200 photons from 10-15 different rods) and scales it before relaying the signal

True

22

Cones can respond to ________ photons/s catch rate

1,000000

23

Cones respond in ____ms and sum responses above rate of ____photons/s

50, 20

24

Cones have a dynamic range of ______

50,000

25

True/False: Rods are less sensitive to a single photon than cones

False

26

How reliable is a rod’s response as compared to a cone’s response?

With rods, a single rod can receive a signal from a single cone. A cone may respond to a single photon about 5% of the time.

27

True/False: There is no overlap when cones pick up where rods begin to fail

False

28

What conditions are photopic, mesopic, and scotopic?

Daylight (no rods), intermediate (between thresholds), and very dim light (only rods)

29

Are rods or cones more reliable?

Rods (saturate more quickly)

30

What will saturate both rods and cones?

A flash of light