Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 9 - Trauma and Stress Related Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 9 - Trauma and Stress Related Disorders Deck (28)
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1
Q

An ongoing process that occurs when environment or social threats place demands on individuals.

A

stress

2
Q

A three-stage physiological reaction to a stressor, consisting of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

*GAS

A

general adaptation syndrome

3
Q

The immediate response to a stressor in which the individual’s autonomic nervous system is activated to “fight or to flee” from the stressor

A

fight-or-flight response

4
Q

The second stage of the general adaptation syndrome, in which various coping mechanisms are used to defend against a stressor.

A

stage of resistance

5
Q

The third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, in which organ systems break down

A

stage of exhaustion

6
Q

The feedback loop that plays a critical role in the body’s response to stress.
In times of stress, the adrenal glands respond to messages from the hypothalamic-pituitary system by increasing their output of cortisol and adrenaline (epinephrine), hormones that help the body cope with stressors via “fight-or-flight” mechanisms.

HPA

A

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)

7
Q

A hormone that starts a chain of coordinated physiological and biochemical defenses against a stressor, and signals the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

CRH

A

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

8
Q

A hormone that, in response to a stressor, directs the adrenal glands to release adrenal corticosteroids.

A

adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

9
Q

A chemical messenger, also known as a stress hormone, that intensifies alarm and prepares the body to cope with a stressor.

A

adrenal corticosteroid

10
Q

A chemical messenger, also known as an adrenal corticosteriod, that intensifies alarm and prepares the body to cope with a stressor.

A

stress hormone

11
Q

An endogenous opioid that helps regulate cardiovasular activity, relieve pain, and facilitate psychological coping.

A

endorphin

12
Q

A decrease in immune system effectiveness that sometimes follows sustained stress

A

immunosupression

13
Q

A steroidal hormone the body uses to fight stress

A

glucocorticoid

14
Q

Stressful or traumatic experiences, including abuse, neglect, and a range of household dysfunction, such as witnessing domestic violence or growing up with substance abuse, mental disorders, parental discord, or crime in the home.

A

adverse childhood experiences

15
Q

A person’s efforts to modify, manage, or tolerate stressors.

A

coping

16
Q

The evaluation of the significance of a stressor or threatening event.

A

primary appraisal

17
Q

An attempt to reduce stress by directly changing the stressor itself

A

problem-focused coping

18
Q

An attempt to reduce stress by thinking about a stressor in ways that make it less upsetting.

A

cognitive reappraisal

19
Q

Attempts to reduce stress by changing a person’s emotional responses to a stressor.

A

emotion-focused coping

20
Q

The feeling that you cared for by others or belong to a valued group.

A

social support

21
Q

Maladaptive behavioral and psychological reactions to a stressor occurring within 3 months of the stressor.

A

adjustment disorder

22
Q

An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences a pattern of intense, fear-related reactions after being exposed to a highly stressful event.

A

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

23
Q

A mental disorder in which a person who has undergone a traumatic event experiences trauma-related symptoms similar to PTSD that begin within 1 month of the trauma and last less than 1 month.

A

acute stress disorder

24
Q

A model that combines classical conditioning and operant conditioning to explain disorders such as PSTD and phobias.

A

two-factor conditioning

25
Q

A memory network that connects fear stimuli and fearful responses.

A

fear network

26
Q

A cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD that involves repeatedly exposing individuals to stimuli that remind them of their past trauma in order to alter their fear networks

A

prolonged exposure therapy

27
Q

A cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD that involves repeatedly exposing individuals to stimuli that remind them of their past trauma, in addition to having them process the meaning of their trauma through written exercises.

A

cognitive processing therapy

28
Q

A cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD that involves repeatedly exposing individuals to stimuli that remind them of their past trauma, while they engage in eye or other bilateral movements postulated to facilitate emotional processing.

A

eye movement desensitization and reprocessing