Anatomy - Lab 3 Flashcards Preview

Test 1 > Anatomy - Lab 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy - Lab 3 Deck (53)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Lab 3

Name the 3 functions of the nervous system tissue

A
  1. use sensory receptors to monitor changes inside/outside the boty (sensory input) 2. process and interpret the sensory input and make decisions (integration) 3. dictate a response by activating the effector organ.
2
Q

Lab 3

Identify the 4 basic divisions of the nervous system

A
  1. sensory 2. sensory visceral 3. motor somatic 4. motor visceral
3
Q

Lab 3

Describe the functions of the sensory somatic

A

Very widespread, touch, pain, pressure, vibration, and temperature, proprioception (sensing one’s own body)

4
Q

Lab 3

Describe the functions of the sensory visceral

A

stretch, pain and temperature (ex: digestive, urinary tracts/reproductive organs)

5
Q

Lab 3

Describe the functions of the motor somatic

A

unpaired neuron – stimulates contractions of the skeletal muscles (voluntary nervous system)

6
Q

Lab 3

Describe the functions of the motor visceral

A

2 chains (pre and post ganglionic). Regulates the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle and secretion of most glands. Makes up the ANS. Involuntary nervou system.

7
Q

Lab 3

Identify a typical neuron at a LM level

A
  1. neural tissue (excitable portion 2. neuroglial (non-excitable) surrounds and wraps the neurons
8
Q

Lab 3

Identify a typical neuron at EM level

A
  1. cell body 2. chromatophilic nissil bodies 3. neurofibrils 4. ganglia
9
Q

Lab 3

Describe a neuron’s cell body

A

Soma, spherical, contains dark nucleolus in center

10
Q

Lab 3

Describe a chromatophilic nissl body

A

color loving,’ are large clusters of rough ER and free ribosomes that stain darkly with basic dyes.

11
Q

Lab 3

What is the function of a Chromatic Nissl Body

A

renew membranes of the cell and protein part of cytosol

12
Q

Lab 3

Describe a neurofibril

A

bundles of intermediate filaments that run in a network between the chromatophilic bodies.

13
Q

Lab 3

What is the function of a Neurofibril

A

provides tensile strength to cell body

14
Q

Lab 3

Describe a ganglia

A

clusters of cell bodies. Lie along the nerves of the PNS

15
Q

Lab 3

Describe an axon

A

1 per neuron. arises from cone-like region of the cell body called axon hillock. Impulse generators transmit away from the cell body.

16
Q

Lab 3

What is a long axon called?

A

Nerve fiber

17
Q

Lab 3

Describe an axon collateral

A

branching along the lengtho of the axon (rare compared to dendrites).

18
Q

Lab 3

Describe an axon terminal

A

At the end of the axon terminal branch, where the neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft (extracellular space0

19
Q

Lab 3

Describe a dendrite

A
  1. process which looks like limbs attached to the cell body 2. most important organelle in the body 3. reception sites of the neuron 4. carry electrical signals TOWARDS the cell body
20
Q

Lab 3

Describe a synapse

A

the site at which neurons communicate, use chemical messengers (neurotransmitters). One direction transmission (mostly).

21
Q

Lab 3

How are neurons classified?

A

by the # of processes that extend from the cell body

22
Q

Lab 3

Name the 3 classifications of neurons

A
  1. multipolar 2. bipolar 3. unipolar
23
Q

Lab 3

Describe a multipolar Neuron

A

has more than 2 processes (over 99% of neurons are this type). MOST COMMON

24
Q

Lab 3

Describe a bipolar neuron

A

has 2 proceses that extend from opposites sides of cell body. RARE. found in special sensory organs.

25
Q

Lab 3

Where can bipolar neurons be found?

A

inner ear olfactory epithelium of nose.

26
Q

Lab 3

Describe a unipolar neruon

A

Has short, single process that emerges from the cell body and divides like an inverted T into two long branches.

27
Q

Lab 3

Another name for a unipolar neuron?

A

pseudounipolar neurons

28
Q

Lab 3

Where are unipolar neurons found?

A

PNS, where they function as sensory neurons. Common in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves.

29
Q

Lab 3

3 Functional classifications of neurons?

A
  1. sensory 2. motor 3. interneurons
30
Q

Lab 3

Describe a sensory neuron

A
  1. make up sensory division of PNS, 2. transmit info to CNS from PNS. Mostly pseudounipolar. Their Cell bodies are ganglia outside the CNS.
31
Q

Lab 3

Describe a motor neuron

A
  1. make up motor division of PNS, 2. carries impulse away from CNS toward effector organ (muscle or glands) 3. multipolar 4. cell bodies are in CNS (ventral gray matter). 5. form junctions with effector cells, stimulating muscles to contract or glands to secrete.
32
Q

Lab 3

Describe an interneuron

A
  1. lie between motor and sensory neurons. 2. multipolar 3. 99.98% of neurons. 3. links together into chains the form complex neuronal pathways.
33
Q

Lab 3

How many types of Neuroglia are there?

A

4 in CNS. 2 in PNS

34
Q

Lab 3

What is a neuroglia considered?

A

a supporting cell

35
Q

Lab 3

What is the function of a supporting cell (neurons)

A

proide a supporting scaffolding for neurons

36
Q

Lab 3

What is the most abundant glial cell in CNS

A

Astrocyte

37
Q

Lab 3

What is the shape of an astrocyte?

A

star shaped

38
Q

Lab 3

Is an astrocyte part of the PNS or CNS?

A

CNS

39
Q

Lab 3

What is the function of an astrocyte?

A

Regulate neurotransmitter levels by ^ rate of uptake

40
Q

Lab 3

Does an astrocyte increase or decrease blood flow through brain?

A

increase

41
Q

Lab 3

What environment does an astrocyte control around a neuron

A

ionic environment

42
Q

Lab 3

What is the smallest and least abundant cell in the CNS?

A

microglial cells

43
Q

Lab 3

Describe the body of a microglial cell

A

long cell body, long pointed projections of cell processes.

44
Q

Lab 3

Microglial cells are derived from what blood cell type?

A

monocytes

45
Q

Lab 3

What cells are called the macrophages of the CNS that engulfs dead/injured neurons

A

microglial cells

46
Q

Lab 3

Describe an ependymal cell

A

form simple epithelium that lines central cavity of spinal cavity of the spinacl cord and brain

47
Q

Lab 3

What fills the cavity and tissue fluid that bathes the cells in the CNS?

A

ependymal cell

48
Q

Lab 3

Which cilia bearing cell helps circulate the CSF

A

ependymal cell

49
Q

Lab 3

Describe how much info we have to retain for anatomy

A

Enough to want to kill myself

50
Q

Lab 3

Describe oliogodendrycytes

A

few branches (olig). Wrap cell process around the thicker axons, creating myelin sheaths.

51
Q

Lab 3

Which 2 cells are very similar but differ bc of location

A

satellite cells/ schwann cells.

52
Q

Lab 3

Which PNS cell surrounds neuron cell bodies with ganglia and resmbles a satellite (hinty hint-hint)

A

Satellite cells.

53
Q

Lab 3

Which PNS cell surround all axons in the PNS and forms myelin sheaths around axons

A

Schwann cells.