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Flashcards in 12- Individual Differences Deck (67):

What is the definition of personality

The patterns of thoughts and feelings and the ways in which we interact with our environment and other people that make us a unique person


What is the definition of anxiety

A negative emotional state that is closely associated with arousal. It is experiencing apprehension and being aware of high arousal linked to our fears and worries


List 5 type A characteristics

Highly competitive
Strong desire to succeed
Works fast
Likes to be in control
Prone to suffer stress


List 5 type B characteristics

Non competitive
Works more slowly
Does not enjoy being in control
Less prone to stress


What is a stable personality trait ?

Someone who does not swing from one emotion to another but is usually constant in emotional behaviour


What is a unstable (neurotic) personality trait?

Someone who is highly anxious and has unpredictable emotions


What is the definition of extroversion?

A person who seeks social situations and likes excitement but lacks concentration


What is the definition of introversion

A person who does not seek social situations but likes peace and quiet and is good at concentrating


What does the social learning theory suggest about our characteristics

That rather then being born with characteristics, we learn them from other people, especially those from those we hold in high esteem (parents, coaches, role models, friends, people in significance to us)


What does behaviour changing depend on according to the social learning theory?

Depending on the situation and is therefore a product of our interactions with the environment


According to the social learning theory how is personality learned? And why does psychological functioning occur?

By observing, modelling and imitating behaviour, and through experience

As a result of environmental determinants affecting behaviour


What is the interactionist approach?

It recognises the that trait theory and social learning theory both have a role in determining behaviour and personality. It offers a more realistic explanation of personality explaining how different behaviours are produced for different sit


What does the interactionist approach suggest

That we base inherent traits that we then adapt to the situation we are in


What does the trait theory suggest

They do not believe that the situation or environment has any bearing on a persons behaviour, behaviour is said to be consistent


What theory attempts to predict behaviour

Trait theory


What is the definition of attitude

A predisposition to act in a particular way towards something or someone in a persons environment


List 6 things attitudes are formed by

Belief in the benefits of exercise
Enjoyable experiences in sport
Being good at a particular sport
Being excited by the challenge of sport
Using sport as a stress release
The influence of others where participation is the norm


List 6 things negative attitudes are formed by

not believing in the benefits of exercise

a bad past experience, e.g. Injury a lack of ability

fear of taking part in sport

suffering stress when taking part

the influence of others when non-participation is the norm


What is the 3 parts of the Triadic model and explain what they mean

cognitive component- what we know and believe about the attitude we object (beliefs)

affective component how we feel about the attitude object (emotions)

behavioural component how we behave towards, respond to or intend to respond to the attitude object (behaviour).


What are the 2 methods in changing attitudes?

Persuasive communication

Cognitive dissonance


What is persuasive communication?

An active, non coercive attempt to reinforce, modify or change the attitude of others


What does the effectiveness of persuasive communication depend on?

The persuader- the person attempting the change

The message- the quality of the message the persuader is giving

The receiver - the person whose attitude the persuader is trying to change


What is cognitive dissonance?

Individuals like to be consistent in what they do feel and believe. This theory results in individuals having contradictory thoughts about something or someone, which creates an attitude.


Define motivation

The internal mechanisms and external stimuli which arouse and direct our behaviour - sage 1974


Define drive

Directed, motivated or energised behaviour that an individual has toward achieving a certain goal


What are the 3 considerations for motivation

Our inner drive towards achieving a goal

External pressures and rewards we perceive

The intensity and the direction of our behaviour


What are the 2 types of motivation

Intrinsic- the drive from within for example want to achieve mastery for its own sake, includes feelings of fun enjoyment and satisfaction

Extrinsic- comes from an outside source, for example a trophy or reward. Valuable motivator for the beginner but will eventually undermine the intrinsic motivation


Define arousal

The energised state or the readiness for action that motivates us to behave in a particular way


What are the 2 types of arousal and explain them

Somatic- relates to the physiological state of the body

Cognitive- relates to the changing psychological state of the body


What are the 3 theories of arousal

Drive theory

Inverted U theory

Catastrophe theory


What is the drive theory

Demonstrates a linear relationship between performance and arousal, so as arousal increases so does performance


For the drive theory what does the quality of performance depend on

How well the skill has been learned, motor programmes that have already learned are said to be the dominant response


When is a dominant response or behaviour most likely to emerge ( drive theory)

When a performer experiences an increase in arousal


What is the behaviour formula

Behaviour = habit x drive


When is high arousal beneficial

To expert performers ( autonomou stage ) because their dominant behaviour would tend to Rosie’s a response which is fluent and technically correct

Also helps gross and simple skills


What does the inverted u theory state

That arousal improves performance up to an optimal point, past this point performance begins to decrease. The conditions of both under and over arousal severely limit the capacity to learn skills and perform them up to potential


What is it important to consider in the inverted U theory

Personality- extroverts learn best under conditions of high Arousal, introverts at low arousal

Type of task: high- gross, simple, closed
Low- fine, complex, open

Stage of learning - low- cognitive/ associative
High- autonomous

Level or experience: high- experienced
Low- novice


How can under arousal impact performance

Difficult to direct and focus attention and concentration onto relevant environmental cues

Concentration is lost because attentional field is too wide

Many unwanted cues in the environment learner may be day dreaming

Selective attention, cannot operate

Information overload prevents decision making


How can optimum performance impact performance

Perfect state

Attentional field is ideal width

Performer is able to learn or concentrate fully Increased capacity to concentrate means the most important cues can be absorbed from the environment- accurate decision making

Cue utilisation theory predicts that the detection of the most important information occurs at the optimum point of arousal


How can over arousal impact performance

Causes attentional field to narrow

Relevant environmental cues are lost.

Performer is often in a state of panic

Also known as hypervigilance

Selective attention, cannot operate

Concentration is seriously impeded


State the catastrophe theory

As somatic Arousal increases, the quality of performance improves. However performance will only reach maximum potential at the optimum level if cognitive arousal anxiety is kept low. If high cognitive anxiety coincides with high somatic anxiety, the athlete will go beyond the optimum level of arousal and has gone over the edge and performance drops.


What does the vertical drop in catastrophe theory mean

It depicts a performance disaster or catastrophe, after the catastrophe the performer can rejoin the upward curve of arousal, this return requires reduce in cognitive anxiety


Define trait anxiety

A trait that is enduring in an individual. A performer with high trait anxiety has the predisposition or the potential to react to situations with apprehension


Define competitive trait anxiety

A tendency to perceive competitive situations as threatening and to respond to these situations with feelings of apprehension or tension


Define State anxiety

The athletes emotional state atvant given time; variable from situations to situation


Possible symptoms of somatic anxiety

Increase bp
Adrenaline boost
Need to urinate
Muscle tension
Loss of appetite


Possible symptoms of cognitive anxiety

Negative thoughts
Poor concentration
Loss of confidence
Images of failure


What is the zone of optimal functioning

It is the thought of important state well being


What is a top performer like ‘in the zone’

Completely focused
Find activity is effortless
Find movements are automatic
Have fun
Are in control


What is aggression

Is the intent to harm or injure outside the rules of the game


What is assertion

It is forceful behaviour within the laws of the event


What is the instinct theory of aggression

Views aggression as being a natural response, innate and instinctive



How does humans develop aggression in instinct theory of aggression

Humans develop aggression as survival instinct


What is the frustration aggression hypothesis

That frustration will always lead to aggression.


What does blocking of goals do in the frustration aggression hypothesis

It increases an individuals drive, thus increasing aggression and frustration


If success follows (in frustration aggression hypothesis) what does it lead to and define it.

Catharsis - the release of frustration which leads to a feeling of well being


Define social facilitation

The positive influence in sports performance of others who may be watching or competing


Define social inhibition

The negative influence in sports performance of others who may be watching or competing


What’s the social learning theory in aggression

Aggression is learned by observation of others

Imitation of this aggressive behaviour is then reinforced by social acceptance


Give an example of social learning theory in aggression

If we see a team mate fouling an opponent and this drops them from playing well, it is reinforced and copied


What is the aggressive cue hypothesis

For aggression to occur certain stimuli must be present

These stimuli are cues for the performer which are subconsciously linked to aggression


In aggressive due hypothesis, frustration causes anger and arousal. What does this create

A readiness for aggression


Give an example of aggression cue hypothesis

A player sees a team mate fouled then decides to join in


What are the 4 factors that Zajonc identities that affect performance

The presence of an audience increases arousal

Increases in arousal will trigger the dominant response

If a skill is well learned, response to be correct

If the skill is new or poorly learned, the response will be incorrect


What does evaluation apprehension do

Increases arousal levels, which in turn increases heart rate and causes other detrimental effects.


What are the effects of social facilitation and social inhibition on performance

Home v away - teams often win at home due to nature of audience. Some suggest it is harder to win at home due to increase pressure

Personality factors - type A perform wisest in front of an audience then type. Extroverts tends to perform better in a crowd then introverts

Levels of experience- performing in front of an audience before will help nerves but if you messed up in front of them before, they may expect to fail again. Elite better then beginners due to dominant response been correct. Performing in front of peers can aid experts but increases anxiety for novices

Type of skill- gross skills helped by arousal so an audience can facilitate performance. Fine or complex skills are more desirable at lower levels of arousal, so an Audience could inhibit performance

Other influences- nature of crowd, if noisy may make you nervous.


Strategies to minimise social inhibition

Imagery techniques
Relaxation techniques
Training with an audience present
Preparing to deal with negative reactions of co actors
Decreasing the importance of an event
Remaining calm and focused