1.2 Structure and Replication of DNA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.2 Structure and Replication of DNA Deck (28)
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1

3'-5'

strand of nucleic acid running from a sugar to a phosphate

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adenine (A)

DNA base that pairs with thymine

3

amplification of DNA

the production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA; repeated copying of a piece of DNA

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antiparallel

parallel strands in DNA that run in opposite directions in terms of chemical polarity

5

ATP

adenosine triphosphate; molecule used for energy transfer in cells

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base

nitrogenous substance that is a component of DNA nucleotides

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cytosine (C)

DNA base that pairs with guanine

8

deoxyribose

pentose sugar that is a component of DNA molecules

9

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; molecule that holds the genetic code in living organisms

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DNA polymerase

enzyme that adds free nucleotides during DNA replication

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double helix

three-dimensional shape of a DNA molecule

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fragments

replicated sequences of the lagging strand which are later joined by ligase

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gel electrophoresis

laboratory method used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA or proteins according to molecular size

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guanine (G)

DNA base that pairs with cytosine

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heat-tolerant DNA polymerase

enzyme from hot-spring bacteria, using in PCR

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hydrogen bond

weak chemical link joining complementary base pairs in DNA

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lagging strand

DNA strand that is replicated in fragments

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leading strand

DNA strand that is replicated continuously

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ligase

enzyme that joins DNA fragments

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nucleotide

component of DNA consisting of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group and a base

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phosphate

component of a DNA nucleotide

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polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

method of amplifying sequences of DNA in vitro

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primer

short complementary strand of DNA

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replication

formation of copies of DNA molecules

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sugar-phosphate backbone

strongly bonded strand of DNA

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target sequences

complementary sequence of bases on the 3' end of DNA to which primer attaches

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template strand

DNA strand on which a complementary copy is made

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thymine (T)

DNA base that pairs with adenine