1.3 Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.3 Gene Expression Deck (29)
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1

alternative RNA splicing

particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final processed messenger RNA (mRNA)

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amino acid

unit of polypeptide structure

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anticodon

sequence of three bases on tRNA that codes for a specific amino acid

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attachment site

site on a transfer RNA molecule to which a specific amino acid binds

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codon

sequence of three bases on mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid

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environmental factors

factors such as diet, light and temperature that can interact with an organism's genotype to affect its phenotype

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exon

coding sequence of DNA

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gene

section of DNA that codes for a protein

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gene expression

transcription and translation of a gene to synthesise proteins

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interactions

chemical attractions and bonding such as hydrogen bonds between amino acids, giving proteins their three-dimensional shape

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intron

non-coding sequence of DNA

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mature transcript

RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed ready for translation

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messenger RNA (mRNA)

carries a copy of the DNA code from the nucleus to the ribosome

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peptide bond

strong chemical link between amino acids in the primary structure of a polypeptide

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phenotype

outward appearance of an organism

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polypeptide

short strand of amino acids

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primary transcript

molecule made when DNA is transcribed

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ribose

sugar that forms part of an RNA nucleotide

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ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

type of RNA that makes up ribosomes

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ribosome

site of protein synthesis composed of rRNA and protein

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RNA

ribonucleic acid; several forms of single-stranded nucleic acid that are involved in protein synthesis

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RNA polymerase

enzyme which unwinds and unzips DNA and adds complementary nucleotides to form a primary transcript

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RNA splicing

joining of exons following the removal of introns from a primary transcript

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start codon

first codon of a messenger RNA transcript translated by a ribosome

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stop codon

codon within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins

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transcription

copying of DNA sequence to make a primary transcript

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transfer RNA (tRNA)

transfers specific amino acids to the mRNA on the ribosomes

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translation

production of a polypeptide at a ribosome using information encoded in mRNA

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uracil (U)

RNA base not found in DNA; pairs with adenine in transcription and translation