12.3 : Transmision of Communicable Diseases Flashcards Preview

Biology Module 4 > 12.3 : Transmision of Communicable Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in 12.3 : Transmision of Communicable Diseases Deck (9):
1

Give examples of direct transmission

Direct contact e.g. kissing, skin-to-skin contact, sexual intercourse

Inoculation e.g break in skin, animal bites, puncture wound / sharing needles

Ingestion e.g. contaminated food and drink, transferring pathogens to mouth from hands

2

What is direct transmission ? What diseases spread like this?

Pathogen is transmitted directly from one organism to the other.

HIV - sex
Athletes foot - touch

3

What is indirect transmission? What diseases spread like this?

Pathogen travels from one individual to another indirectly ( using an intermediate )

Late blight is spread when spores are carried between plants ( air and then water )

Malaria is press via mosquitoes which act as vectors

4

Give examples of indirect transmission

Fomites e.g. inanimate objects like bedding or cosmetics can transfer pathogens

Droplet infection ( inhalation) e.g. saliva and mucus expelled when coughing or sneezing. Healthy people breathe this.

Vectors - transmits pathogens from one host to another. Animals can be vectors, but so can water

5

What factors affect transmission of communicable diseases in animals?

Overcrowded living and working conditions

Poor nutrition

Compromised immune system

Climate change

Culture and infrastructure

Socioeconomic factors

6

What factors affect transmission of communicable diseases in plants?

Planting varieties of plants that are susceptible to disease

Over - crowding

Poor mineral nutrition

Damp warm conditions

Climate change

7

How does overcrowding increase transmission of communicable diseases?

e.g. TB

- can remain in air for long time and infect new people
- spread by droplet infection

Plants

- increases chance of contact

8

How does climate change increase transmission of communicable diseases?

e.g. late blight

- wet summers : spores need water to spread

e.g. malaria
- hot and humid : ideal conditions for mosquitoes to breed

9

How do socioeconomic factors increase transmission of communicable diseases?

e.g. HIV

- limited access to good healthcare : people less likely to be diagnosed and treated, effective drugs less available

- limited access to good health education : less informed about how transmitted and avoided eg safe sex