Ch. 10.2 : The Five Kingdoms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 10.2 : The Five Kingdoms Deck (13):
1

What are the traditional five kingdoms?

The prokaryotes :
Prokaryote ( bacteria )

The eukaryotes :
Protoctista ( unicellular eukaryotes )
Fungi ( eg yeasts, moulds and mushrooms )
Plantae ( the plants )
Animalia ( the animals )

2

What are the general features of prokaryotes ?

Unicellular

No nucleus or other membrane bound organelles - a ring of 'naked' DNA - small ribosomes

No visible feeding mechanism - nutrients are absorbed through the cell walk or produced internally by photosynthesis

3

What are the general features of protoctista ?

( Mainly ) unicellular

A nucleus and other membrane bound organelles

Some have chloroplasts

Some are sessile, but others move by cilia, flagella or by amoeboid mechanisms

Nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis ( autotrophic feeders ), ingestion of other organisms ( heterotrophic feeders ) , of both - some are parasitic

4

What are the general features of fungi ?

Unicellular or multicellular

A nucleus and other membrane bound organelles and a cell wall mainly composed of chitin

No chloroplasts or chlorophyll

No mechanisms for locomotion

Most have a body or mycelium made of threads or hyphae

Nutrients are acquired by absorption - mainly from decaying material - they are saprophytic feeders - some are parasitic

Most store their food as glycogen

5

What are the general features of plantae ?

Multicellular

A nucleus and other membrane bound organelles including chloroplasts , and a cell wall mainly composed of cellulose

All contain chlorophyll

Most do not move, although gametes of some plants move using cilia or flagella

Nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis - they are autotrophopic feeders - organisms that make their own food

Store food as starch

6

What are the general features of animalia ?

Multicellular

A nucleus and other membrane bound organelles ( no cell walls )

No chloroplasts

Move with the aid of cilia, flagella , or contractile proteins, sometimes in the form of muscular organs

Nutrients are acquired by ingestion - they are heterotrophic feeders

Food stored as glycogen

7

Why are classification systems changing?

Originally they were based on observable features.

Through the study of genetics scientists are now able to study the evolutionary relationships between organisms.

This can be done by comparing DNA and proteins, which affects the observable features and characteristics.

8

What is the classification system we now use?

Three Domain System - Carl Woese

Renamed to Domain in 1990

9

Describe the three Domain system

There are three domains and six kingdoms. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.

10

What are the differences in the three domains?

Eukarya - have 80s ribosomes
- RNA polymerase contains 12 proteins

Archaea - have 70s ribosomes
- RNA polymerase of different organisms contains between 8 and 10 proteins and is very similar to eukaryotic ribosome

Bacteria - have 70s ribosomes
- RNA polymerase contains 5 proteins

11

What is the difference in kingdoms in Domain and the traditional 5 kingdoms?

In Domain, the prokaryote kingdom becomes divided into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria, so there are 6 kingdoms.

12

Describe Archaebacteria and Eubacteria and their differences

Archaebacteria : Can live in extreme conditions e.g hot thermal vents, anaerobic conditions and highly acidic environments

Eubacteria : Found in all environments. Most bacteria are Eubacteria

Their chemical makeup is different

13

Describe Eubacteria

Found in all environments