Flashcards in 10.7 : Adaptations Deck (9):
What are three groups adaptations can be in?
Anatomical - physical features ( internal and external )
Behavioural - the way an organism acts
Physiological - processes that take place inside an organism
Give some examples of anatomical adaptations
Body covering - feathers on birds for flight, thick hair on polar bears for warmth, snails shell for protection. Thick waxy layers on plants to reduce water loss and spikes to deter herbivores.
Camouflage - harder to spot by predators. Snowshoe hair white in winter and brown in summer ( matches soil and rock environment )
Teeth - herbivores : continuously growing molars, carnivores : large sharp canines
Mimicry - can fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous e.g hoverfly mimics wasp
Give some examples of behavioural adaptations
Survival behaviours - opossum plays dead, rabbit freezes
Courtship - scorpions dance to attract more
Seasonal behaviours - migration ( move to favourable environmental conditions ) and hibernation ( period of inactivity where energy is conserved )
What are the two categories behavioural adaptations can fall into?
Innate - ability is inherited through genes
Learned - from experience or observing other animals
Give some explains of physiological adaptions
Poison production - many reptiles use venom and plants produce poison
Antibiotic production - some bacteria produce antibiotics to kills other species of bacteria
Water holding - water holding Frog can store water in its body - can survive in desert more than year without water . Cacti as well.
Define analogous structures
Adapted to perform the same function but have a different genetic origin.
Define convergent evolution
Unrelated species begin to share similar traits.
Why does convergent evolution occur?
The organisms adapt to similar environments or other selection pressures.
Species in each continent resemble each other because they have adapted to fill similar niches.