10.7 : Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10.7 : Adaptations Deck (9):
1

What are three groups adaptations can be in?

Anatomical - physical features ( internal and external )

Behavioural - the way an organism acts

Physiological - processes that take place inside an organism

2

Give some examples of anatomical adaptations

Body covering - feathers on birds for flight, thick hair on polar bears for warmth, snails shell for protection. Thick waxy layers on plants to reduce water loss and spikes to deter herbivores.

Camouflage - harder to spot by predators. Snowshoe hair white in winter and brown in summer ( matches soil and rock environment )

Teeth - herbivores : continuously growing molars, carnivores : large sharp canines

Mimicry - can fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous e.g hoverfly mimics wasp

3

Give some examples of behavioural adaptations

Survival behaviours - opossum plays dead, rabbit freezes

Courtship - scorpions dance to attract more

Seasonal behaviours - migration ( move to favourable environmental conditions ) and hibernation ( period of inactivity where energy is conserved )

4

What are the two categories behavioural adaptations can fall into?

Innate - ability is inherited through genes

Learned - from experience or observing other animals

5

Give some explains of physiological adaptions

Poison production - many reptiles use venom and plants produce poison

Antibiotic production - some bacteria produce antibiotics to kills other species of bacteria

Water holding - water holding Frog can store water in its body - can survive in desert more than year without water . Cacti as well.

6

Define analogous structures

Adapted to perform the same function but have a different genetic origin.

7

Define convergent evolution

Unrelated species begin to share similar traits.

8

Why does convergent evolution occur?

The organisms adapt to similar environments or other selection pressures.

Species in each continent resemble each other because they have adapted to fill similar niches.

9

Give examples of convergent evolution

Marsupial and placental mice - both small, agile climbers that live in dense ground cover and forage at night for small food items.

Flying phalangers and flying squirrels - both gliders that eat insects and plants. Skin stretched between forelimbs and hind limbs to provide large SA for gliding.

Marsupial and placental moles - both burrow through soft soul to find worms and grubs. Streamlined body shape and modified forelimbs for digging. Velvety fur allows smooth movement through soil.