12.7: Mycology II Flashcards Preview

MHD VI: Pulm > 12.7: Mycology II > Flashcards

Flashcards in 12.7: Mycology II Deck (37)
1

Structure of cryptococcosis?

- ROUND yeast with polysaccharide capsule
- Associated with pigeon droppings and soil

2

What to think of when you hear pigeon droppings?

Cryptococcosis

3

What is only yeast with polysaccharide capsule?

Cryptococcosis

4

2 Varieties of cryptococcosis and where are they endemic?

1. Neoformans: pigeon guano, global
2. Gatii: SW, PNW, mexico

5

Who is most at risk for cryptococcosis?

Aids patients make up 50% of victims

6

Pathogenesis of cryptococcosis?

- Inhale into lungs
- Pulmonary infection is usually asymptomatic a
- Likes to spread from lungs to CNS through blood causing disease w/o showing pulm symptoms
- Causes meningitis in CNS

7

What is required for clearing cryptococcosis?

- T cells
- Recovery associated with humoral immunity

8

Clinical presentation of cryptococcosis?

1. Meningitis: cranial nerve abnormalities
2. Headache
3. Nausea
4. Gait abnormalities
5. Irritability
6. Dementia
7. Raised skin lesions
***Lead to coma and death if not treated

9

How to test for cryptococcosis?

- Cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination
- Rapid test of CSF or blood
- Indian ink preparation also works

10

What does silver stain work well on?

Fungus, yeast, mold

11

What are dimorphic fungi?

- Grow as yeast at 35 degrees: in our bodies
- Grow as mold at 25 degrees

12

Which are the dimorphic fungi?

1. Histoplasma capsulatum
2. Blastomyces dermatitidis
3. Coccidioides immitis
4. Sporothrix schenckii "Sporotrichosis"

13

Reservoir of Histoplasma?

- Bat caves and chicken coops

14

Endemic area of Histoplasma?

Ohio and Mississippi river valley

15

Symptoms of Histoplasma?

- Pulmonary infiltrate and lymphadenopathy that can progress to cavitating lesion
- TB like symptoms
- Febrile illness

16

Hallmark of Histoplasma Capsulatum?

- Organism can grow inside macrophages then spread to liver spleen and marrow

17

How is Histoplasmosis tested for?

Positive urine antigen test

18

Which fungi grows and multiples in macrophages?

Histoplasmosis

19

What is Chicago disease?

Blastomycosis

20

Where is Blastomycosis endemic?

- Central US, primarily Chicago: cities that are on waterways
- Increase during rain and when rivers overflow: late fall after a wet summer

21

Clinical manifestation of Blastomycosis?

Pneumonia like
1. Fever
2. Chest pain
3. Cough w/ sputum
4. Lytic bone lesions
5. DIsseminated disease
6. Skin lesions

22

What are "Broad based budding yeast"?

Blastomycosis

23

Appearance of Blastomycosis?

Broad based budding yeast on KOH

24

Other names for Coccidioidomycosis?

"San Joaquin Valley Fever" "Desert Rheumatism"

25

Other names for "San Joaquin Valley Fever" "Desert Rheumatism"?

Coccidioidomycosis

26

Characteristics of Coccidioidomycosis?

- Restricted to desert SWUS
- Not transmitted person to person: inhale spores from dust

27

Pathogenesis of Coccidioidomycosis?

- Inhaled arthroconidia bypassing upper airway
- Convert to spherule full of endospores in lungs
- Spherules bust and endospores spread

28

Presentation of Coccidioidomycosis?

1. Erythema Nodosum: rash commonly seen in white women

29

Lab test for Coccidioidomycosis?

- Blood or skin test, no urine test

30

What are spherules filled with endospores indicative of?

Coccidioidomycosis

31

What is alternating barrel shaped arthroconidia indicative of?

Coccidioidomycosis

32

What is Subcutaneous mycoses?

Fungal infection of skin and underlying tissue by fungi without systemic spread

33

Two types of Subcutaneous mycoses?

1. Sporotrichosis
2. Chromoblastomycosis

34

What is associated with pricking self on rose thorn in garden?

Sporotrichosis

35

Presentation of Sporotrichosis?

- Papular skin lesions that enlarge and ulcerate
- Firm nodules along lymphatics
- Ulcers

36

What is cigar or daisy like shape indicative of?

Sporotrichosis

37

What is cauliflower like skin lesion indicative of?

Chromoblastomycosis