1.2B - Chile (The Andes) Flashcards Preview

9GE01 Tectonics > 1.2B - Chile (The Andes) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.2B - Chile (The Andes) Deck (13):

Landslide stresses

Angle of slope
Rainwater / saturation
Vibration e.g. Cars
Sea, cliff erosion


Landslide strengths

Lubricant layers
Trees / vegetation roots
Consolidation of material
Porosity of soil (water draining through)


What is meant by a Benioff Zone?

Inclined zone where deep earthquakes occur, beneath a destructive plate boundary
Crustal rocks melt with various chemical reactions


What are the types of waves?

P waves - primary waves
S waves - secondary waves
L waves - love waves


Where do love waves travel?

Through the surface of the crust, the fastest of the surface waves moves from side to side (horizontal) as it moves forward


What is a destructive plate boundary?

When oceanic and continental plates move together
(Fold mountains or island arcs)


What is a constructive plate boundary?

Occurs when plates move apart
(Mid ocean ridges)


What is a collision plate boundary?

When two continental plates collide, the plates are not forced under each other so they are forced upwards
(Form fold mountains)


What is a transform plate boundary?

When plates slide sideways past each other
(Conservative or major fault)


Which case study is an example of an earthquake occurring due to plate boundary stress?

The earthquake in Chile, 1960


Which types of waves arrive first and why?

Primary waves, because they have a short wavelength and a velocity of 4km/s


What factors can increase landslide rates?

Increasing convection currents
More weight on the top of the slope
Increasing the size of the plate
Stronger slab pull
Higher density rock
Lightning strikes on fold mountains


Why is it difficult for buildings to remain intact during an earthquake event?

Each type of wave moves through the ground differently
Everything attached to the ground also moves
Buildings can't stay intact