What is the boiling point of ionic bonds?
High as the strong electrostatic force must be overcome
Can ionic bonds conduct electricity?
When molten as the fluidity of the electrons mean they can move and carry charge
Are ionic compounds soluble?
They can dissolve in polar solvents!
What is a covalent bond?
The sharing of a pair of electrons, to fulfil outer shells This can occur in single, double or triple bonds
What is a dative covalent bond?
1 atom donates both electrons in the covalent bond
What are giant covalent bonds/ structures?
Graphite are hexagonal layers of carbon with free electron causing electrostatic attraction between each sheet Diamond sustains 4 covalent bonds so is a stronger structure than graphite with a high melting pint
What are metallic bonds?
Positive ions suspended in a sea of free delocalised electrons causing an electrostatic attraction between the two species.
What are the properties of metallic bonds?
They have high melting points due to the strength needed to overcome the electrostatic attraction They can be shaped due to the layers that form (Alloys distort this) They can conduct electricity due to the free electrons ability to move They are not soluble
What is the repulsion in bonding in a molecule?
Lone pair / Lone pair Lone pair / Bonded pair Bonded pair / Bonded pair
What are intermolecular forces?
These are the forces between molecules and are weaker than the Bonding within the molecules
What are Van de Waals forces?
This is also known as a temporary dipole and all molecules have these. As charge clouds move, the shape of the cloud distorts to have a D+ and D- side. This is because the nucleus is positive and the electrons are negative. The D+ attracts to electrons from other atoms/ions within the molecule until the molecule has an overall D+ direction.
What are permanent dipole- dipoles?
In a substance made of permanent dipoles ie HCl there will be weak electrostatic attraction between each molecule.
What is Hydrogen bonding?
It occurs only between H and FON F,O,N are very electrostatic due to their atomic structure whilst H is very positive. Because the bond is so polarised, small weak bonds form between the molecules.
Are melting and boiling points affected by intermolecular forces?
Yes the melting point will increase as more energy is required to overcome the strong electrostatic forces.
Are other chemical properties affected by intermolecular force?
Viscosity increases due to the attraction between the molecules In the case of water and ice, the H bonds align to form a regular lattice however there is a great distance between the molecules so ice becomes less dense than water.
What is an ionic bond?
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions ie) Na+ and Cl- This is due to electrons being transferred from 1 atom to another forming ions
Bent (2 lone pairs)