3.1 Organic Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1 Organic Chemistry Deck (24):
1

What is the molecular formula?

The actual number of atoms of each element in a compound

2

What is the general formula?

The algebraic formula which describes a homologous series/ family of compounds. Ie) CnH2n+2

3

What is the structural formula?

It shows the all elements, carbon by carbon, including functional groups and H
CH3CH3CCl3

4

What is the displayed formula?

It shows how the atoms are arranged with their bonds

(Think Ball and Stick Model)

5

What is the skeletal formula?

A sketch of the carbon chain with functional groups written.

6

Alkanes

CnH2n+2
-ane
Saturated hydrocarbon

7

Alkenes

CnH2n
-ene
Unsaturated hydrocarbons

8

Halogenoalkanes

CnH2n+1X
Bromo-
Fluoro-
Iodo-
Chloro-

9

Cycloalkanes

CnH2n
Cyclo-
Saturated
Ring structure

10

Alcohol

CnH2n+1OH
-ol

R-C-OH

11

Aldehyde

R-CHO
-al

-C=O
|
H

12

Ketones

R-CO-R
-one

R
|
C=O
|
R

13

Carboxylic acid

-oic acid
R-COOH

R-C=O
|
OH

14

Branched Alkanes

(Number of carbon and the name)

1- Methyl
2- Ethyl
3- Propyl
4- Butyl
5- Pentyl
6- Hexyl

15

What is a homologous series?

A series of molecules with the same functional group and general formula

16

What are the rules of nomenclature?

Always count the largest carbon chain
Number each functional group (smaller numbers preferably)
Name the groups on their quantity- di, tri, tetra
Halogens have lower priority than alkyl, Alkenes and other groups
Commas between numbers; dashes between words and numbers

17

What is chain isomerism?

Different arrangement of the carbon chain

18

What is position isomerism?

The same shape but the naming feature has moved ie) OH

19

What is functional group isomerism?

The same atoms but different functional groups

Alkene -> Cycloalkanes

20

What is stereoisomersm?

The same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.

21

What is E isomer?

Occurs around a double bond. The matching groups are on the opposite sides

(Think diagonal)

22

What is a Z isomer?

Occurs around a double bond. The matching groups are on the same side

23

What does planar double bond mean?

All atoms across a double bond is planar and they can't rotate
However their chains and branches can rotate.

24

What is the empirical formula?

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound