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Flashcards in 15 Deck (71):
1

Meclizine

First generation antagonist of H1 (can treat motion sickness just like diphendyramine)...shit will make you tired tho so heads up

2

Somatostatin analogs (octreotide)

inhibit bioactive amine release

3

CD8+ bronchoalveolar lavage in patient who works with birds

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

4

CD22+ on broncoalveolar lavage

also CD19, CD20

Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia may sometimes involve pleura or present as patchy pulm infiltrates

5

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bacterial pneumonia bronchioalveolar lavage

Neutrophils

6

Speed of hemoglobin moving towards anode (+)

A>S>C

7

schedule daytime naps is a tx for ?

narcolepsy

8

Chronic relentless HA / N and meningitis

Acanthamoeba, TB, Crytococcus neoformans

9

1) First line for bipolar?
2) Maintenance Tx for depression of biopolar?

1) Lithium, Valproate, quetiapine
2) Lamotrigine

10

FSH stimulates the sertoli cells to produce ______ locally, within seminiferous tubules. This _________ is responsible for high LOCAL testosterone concentration. High testosterone levels and FSH are necessary for spermatogenesis

androgen binding protein

11

Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder)

involves recurrent pulling of hair and repeated attempts to decrease or stop behavior

12

The right middle lobe of the lung lies immediately adjacent to the

the right boarder of the heart/ right atrium

13

Apixaban, rivaroxaban

direct Xa inhibitors

14

Tet spell causes

idiopathic, dehydration, hyperventilation

15

Zonulae occludentes

Tight junctions

16

Tight junctions are composed of what transmembrane proteins

Claudins and occludins that associate with actin filaments forming a beltlike seal (permits only the passage of substances from the blood to the brain via transcellular movement)

17

Maculae adherentes

Desmosomes- spotlike junctions that anchor adjacent cells together via keratin intermediate filament interactions. Desmosomes in the stratum spinosum of the skin cause pemphigus vulgaris

18

Inhibits H/K ATPase in gastric parietal cells

Omeprazole

19

Rhizomelia

shortened limbs, esp proximally

20

Exfoliative toxins MOA in SSSS

act as proteases and cleave desmoglein in desmosomes

21

Pathogenesis of MS

Helper T cells abnormally react to antigens in myelin, causing a release of inflammatory cytokines (eg. INF-gamma) that promote the infiltration of destructive macrophages/microglia and leukocytes. B cells may also play a role as most MS patients have oligoclonal immunoglobulin

22

Dilation of sinusoids and perivenular hemorrhage is associated with acute venous outflow obstruction within the liver

Budd-Chiari Syndrome

23

Inter vs Intra

Intra = inside or within

24

Lacunar stroke involving the ____________ and _________ of the thalamus typically results in complete contralateral sensory loss. Damage to the thalamus may also cause thalamic syndrome, characterized by contralateral burning or stabbing pain over one side of the body.

VPLN and VPMN (ventral posterior thalamus)

25

Cold extremities due to Raynaud phenomenon are associated with what medications?

Amphetamines (lol)
Ergotamine
Chemo agents

26

Encephalitis (within days)
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (within weeks)
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

Measles (rubeola)

Vitamin A helps prevent and treat (even reduce hospital stay haha)

27

Stomatitis and cheilosis; irritability

Vitamin B6 deficiency

28

Hemolytic anemia and neurologic abnormalities (ataxia)

Vitamin E def

29

What can be given to decrease homocysteine levels

vitamin B6 (look this up in biochem you lazy douche)

30

easy brusing, gum bleeding, hematuria, hematochezia

Vitamin K def

31

microarray is similar to

Southern and northern blot but involves hybridization of a large number of probs at one (genome DNA or cDNA)

32

SPEP (serum protein electrophoresis) is a more specific lab test used to determine

if excessive monoclonal immuglobulins are present "M-Peak" (MM, Waldenstrom and some lymphomas)

33

First component of junctional complex (usually observed at apices of glandular cells)

Tight junctions (zona occludens)

34

Intermediate junctions (zona adherens)

second component of junctional complex (radiate from cell membrane and hold adjacent cells together)

35

Small circular adherent patches circumferentially placed around call that compromise the the 3rd junctional component

Desmosomes (contribute to structural cohesiveness of tissues subject to mechanical stress)

36

Can sense mechanical stress and send signals to modulate activity of surface osteoblasts. Help regulate bone remodeling. Communicate through intracanalicular processes in lamellae with GAP junctions. Exchange nutrients and waste products with neighboring osteocytes

Osteocytes
Major structural role too.
Control short-term release and deposition of calcium. Plasma calcium directly dictates their activity thus calcitonin indirectly influences their metabolic activity

37

Characterized by defective T-cell DEVELOPMENT and B cell dysfucntion

SCID (Defect in T Cell development (ex: IL-2 gamma chain) leading to loss of both cellular and humoral immunity

38

SCID presents similar to congenital HIV

just so ya know

39

RAS mutation

colorectal and pancreatic

TK (growth factor ligand binds receptor-->autophosphorylation)

40

Resides in atrioventricular groove on posterior aspect of the heart

coronary sinus

41

What is normally damaged by sudden deceleration and pivots on an extended knee during sports activity? Tests?

ACL
Lachman Test, Anterior drawer test

42

Sarcomere:
_____ line is dark AF. Composed of thin filaments which are composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin anchor to the _____ line

Z

43

Child under 6 years old does not understand

death

44

_________ last from 3 days to 1 month; while PTSD lasts more than a month

Acute stress disorder

45

Common cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and nosocomial pneumonias as well as UTIs

Klebsielllla ellla ellla ellla eyyyy

46

CEA is a _________ produced in embyonic pancreas liver and intestine. Monitor for pancreatic gastric and breast cancer. Also seen in benign shit... IBD, COPD, cirrhosis, pacreatitis. Also higher in smokers.

glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion

47

Adjunct chemo recommended for node-positive colorectal cancer?

Oxaliplatin-based regimen

48

dyspnea with croup (brassy barking cough, dyspnea and recent history of URI = viral laryngotracheitis. Parainfluenza MC

due to inflamed subglottic tissue obstructing upper airway

49

High circulating homocysteine levels, MARFANOID HABITUS, and increased risk for premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Homocystinuria (AR)
Cystathionine synthase deficiency

50

Osteogenesis imperfect not only have decreased bone mass and fractures and dat blue sclera but also

dental abnormalities and hearing loss

51

ADPKD is a rare disorder of __________.

Tubular epithelial cells
Numerous parenchymal cysts
Cardiac valvular disease and cerebral aneurysms

52

Fibrillin-1 (Marfans) is an extracellular glycoprotein that acts as a

scaffold for elastin
It is abundant in zonular fibers of lense, periosteum, and aortic media.
Root dilation with dissection = common cause of death

53

EG caused by Pseudomona bacteremia is due to what factors?

Exotoxin A- protein synthesis inhibition
Elastase- degrades elastic...important for BV destruction
Phospholipase C (degredes cellar membranes
Pyocyanin- generates reactive oxygen species

54

Superinfection of preexisting skin lesion (eczema, minor trauma)

Impetigo

55

Superficial skin lesion characterized by painful erythematous plaque with well raised well demarcated boarders

erysipelas

56

HSV-2 reactivation in

S2,S3,S4 dorsal roots MC

57

Digoxin vs. Amiodarone toxicity

DIGOXIN HAS HYPERKALEMIA

58

Linezolid has MAOI activity

watch out for serotonin store

59

Bone mass in adult is determined by

peak bone mass and the rate of bone loss

60

Teriparatide

recombinant PTH- stimulates maturation of pre-osteoblasts into bone forming osteoblasts that lay down collagen and mineralize the matrix.
Also increases GI calcium absorption and renal reabsorption (decreased urinary calcium)

61

Incidentalomas

MRI and CT not used in initial workup b/c 5-10% of healthy people will show mass like lesions...even in brain (the dean)

62

Cortisol in normal person highest when and lowest when

highest in morning
lowest at evenings

63

In Cushing Syndrome, normal circadian rhythm is lost.

Measure of cortisol in evening is more sensitive and specific (since levels should technically be lowest at this point)

64

Sodium cyanide-nitroprusside test

qualitative screening for cystine in urine
1) Cyanide added (cystine to cysteine)
2) Nitroprusside added- reacts with sulfhydrl group on free cysteine, causing a RED-PURPLE discoloration (positive test)

65

Tenesmus (painful straining of defecation) and small-caliber stool are characteristic of

RECTAL adenocarcinoma

66

Left-sided colon cancers tend to infiltrate the intestinal wall and encircle the lumen (napkin ring)

constipation and symptoms of obstruction

67

Often causes hematochezia

Rectosigmoid cancer (hematochezia like UC but no fever)

68

Constipation that alternates with diarrhea

IBM

69

Recurrent grossly bloody stool associated with abdominal discomfort and low-grade fever

Ulcerative colitis...risk factor for colon cancer

70

Right sided colon cancer presentation

exophytic mass
No intestinal obstruction...larger lumen in ascending. Also stool is more liquid here. Present with IDA (fatique pallor) due to occult blood loss. Nonspecific symptoms such as anorexia, malaise and unintentional weight loss

71

Drugs to avoid in elderly?

Anticholinergics (ex. first generation antihistamines), alpha blockers, TCA, sulfonylureas, and sedating pain medication