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Flashcards in 6 Deck (61):
1

Carpal spasm

Trousseau sign (hypocalcemia)

2

Twitching of the nose and lips

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

3

Cotruncal abnormalities (interrupted aortic arch, truncus arteriosus)

DGS

4

Other DGS if first and second pouches involved

hypertelorism, short palpebral fissures, micrognathia, bifid uvula, cleft palate

5

Familial Hyopcalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) inheritance

AD

6

FHH defect

CaSR hyposensitivity in parathyroid gland and kidneys. Higher levels of calcium are needed to suppress PTH

7

Mild asymptomatic hypercalcemia, reduced urinary excretion of calcium and high normal or mildly elevated PTH

Familial Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (AD)

8

GH, prolactin and EPO

Transmembrane receptor activation of Janus kinase-STAT pathway

9

Ach (nicotinic), serotonin, NMDA, GABA

transmembrane ligand gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors)

10

Insulin and insulin-like GF

Transmembrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity

11

Vitamin D

Intracellular receptor (like steroid hormones)

12

Without ApoE3 and E4

liver cannot remove chylomicrons and VLDLs leading to increased cholesterol and TGs

13

ApoC2

Activates lipoprotein lipase on chylomicrons and VLDL

14

ApoA1

required for esterfication of free cholesterol in HDL particles by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)

15

LCAT or Apo1 deficiencies

low HDL and increased circulating free cholesterol levels

16

Inositol monophosphate inhibition is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms by which ______ exerts its antidepressant and antimanic effects

lithium

17

FMR1 loss of function mutation

Fragile X

18

Neurophsychiatric issues, development delay, hyperlaxity of joints in hand, large testes, prominent forehead and chin, long and narrow face

Fragile X

19

1) Fibromyalgia cause
2) proven pain reduction method that improves function

1) Abnormal central processing of pain
2) Gradual incremental aerobic exercise

20

Bilateral muscle weakness and associated skin (malar rash, violaceous eruptions on the eyelids, knuckles and elevated Creatine kinase

Dermatomysitis

21

Inflammatory disorder that affects patients >50 and causes subacute pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, weight loss, fever and malaise

Polymyalgia rheumatica

22

Really bad in morning and gets better during the day

RA

23

Federal socialized medical insurance program: Covers 65 and older who have worked and paid taxes. Covers younger individuals with disabilities, ESRD, ALS

Medicare

24

Covering inpatient hospital visits

Medicare Part A

25

Covering a select number of outpatient services and medical devices

Medicare Part B

26

An optional capitated plan with additional benefits (vision, dental)

Medicare Part C

27

Optional prescription drug plan

Medicare Part D

28

State-run medical insurance program: covers homeless, undocumented immigrants, prego women, and low-income familes

Medicaid

29

Fever, pruritic skin rash, and arthralgias that begin 7-14 days after exposure to an antigen

Serum sickness (Type III) w/ fibrinoid necrosis and intense neutrophil infiltration (labs will show neutropenia, low C3 and C4)

30

TNF-alpha inhibitors ADR

neutropenia

31

Prevention of atelectasis

Breathing exercises

32

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

Adequate hydration

33

physical exam reveals pulsatile mass with a thrill on palpation. Auscultation reveals a constant bruit over the site.

AV fistula

34

Increase preload (End diastolic volume) and decrease after-load

AV shunts

35

Gingivostomatitis (see multinucleated giant cells) = HSV. What is the reason for hospitalization ?

Pain often results in dehydration (this is the reason for hospitalization)

36

Surgical landmark during appendicitis

teniae coli (similar function to outer layer of muscularis externa in GI)

37

Injury to the base of the pons

contralateral weakness and ataxia (corticospinal and corticobulbar) and pontocerebellar fibers

38

Frontal cortex lesions

social disinhibition and deficits in attention and executive functions (planning, organizing, decision making)

39

Anterior 2/3 of the posterior limb of the internal capsule=

mainly motor fibers (corticospinal tract)

40

Posterior 1/3 of posterior limb of internal capsule=

sensory (thalamocortical)

41

occurs secondary to leakage of plasma proteins through damaged vascular wall and is characterized by collagenous sclerosis, and accumulation of mural foamy marcrophages

Lipohyalinosis

42

Microatheromas

atherosclerotic accumulation of lipid-laden macs within intimal layer of penetrating artery near its origin off parent vessel

43

Result of small vessel occlusion (due to lipohyalinosis and microatheroma formation) in penetrating vessels supplying the deep brain structures

Lacunar infarcts (Uncontrolled HTN and diabetes = risk factors

44

Ateriovenous concentration

indirect measurement of the solubility of the anesthetic in the body tissue

45

High AV concentration = ________ time of onset

slow b/c more anesthetic is extracted from the blood by the body tissues, increasing the time it takes for the blood to become saturated and slowing the onset of action

46

High blood/gas partition coefficient (solubility of anesthetic in blood)

slower onset of action (absorbed to a greater extent by the blood)

47

Steeper arterial tension curve

less soluble anesthetic (partial pressure in the blood rises more rapidly with less soluble anesthetics)

48

Lower the MAC

the more potent the anesthetic

49

Prolonged untreated sleep apnea increases risk for

pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure

50

Small VSD produces what kind of murmur and where?

Loud holosystolic best heard over left sternal boarder at 3rd/4th intercostal space

51

Larger (nonrestrictive VSDs) produce what kind of murmur

Maybe absent due to decreased resistance across the VSD and lower transseptal pressure grandient

52

Fixed, wide splitting S2

ASD

53

________ can be caused by severe hypomagnesemia (double decrease), which can be seen in prolonged diarrhea

hypoparathyroidism

(Single decrease would increase PTH)

54

Aromatase inhibitors that reduce the synthesis of estrogen from androgens, suppressing estrogen levels in post-menopausal women and slowing progression of ER-positive tumors.

Anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane

55

Epidermal growth factor receptor 2

HER2

56

Inhibits MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, increased degradation of HER2, and facilitates antibody-mediated destruction of tumor cells

Trastuzumab

57

Dopamine agonist used in growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumors or prolactinoma

Cabergoline

58

Uses of leuprolide?

Management of prostate cancer, precocious puberty and endometriosis

59

located near the 3' end of the mRNA (post-translational modification) = Poly-A-tail. What is its role

to protect mRNA from degradation within the cytoplasm after it exits the nucleus

60

Consensus sequence

AAUAAA

61

Where should thoracentesis be performed in midclavicular line, midaxillary, posterior scapular?

above the 8th
above the 10th
above the 12th