16 - Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16 - Digestive System Deck (40):
1

What are the 4 major functions of the Digestive System?

1. Ingestion of food
2. Digestion of food
3. Absorption of nutrients
4. Elimination of wastes

2

The digestive tract consists of which areas?

Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

3

Nearly all segments of the digestive tract consist of four layers, called tunics. There are ...

1. The mucosa
2. The submucosa
3. The muscularis
4. The serosa

4

One of the four tunics of the digestive system is the mucosa. What is its structure?

The mucosa consists of mucous epithelium, a loose connective tissue called the lamina propria, and a thin smooth muscle layer, the muscular mucosae.

5

One of the four tunics of the digestive system is the submucosa. What is its structure?

The submucosa lies just outside the mucosa. It is a thick layer of loose connective tissue containing nerves, blood vessels, and small glands. An expensive network of nerve cell processes forms a plexus. Autonomic nerves innervate this plexus.

6

One of the four tunics of the digestive system is the muscularis. What is its structure?

The muscular is the third layer of the digestive system. In most parts of the digestive tract it consists of an inner layer of circular smooth muscle, and an outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle. Another nerve plexus, also innervated by autonomic nerves, lies between the two muscle layers.

7

One of the four tunics of the digestive system is the serosa. What is its structure?

The serosa consists of the peritoneum, which is a smooth epithelial layer, and its underlying connective tissue. Regions of the digestive tract not covered by the peritoneum are covered by a connective tissue layer called the adventitia.

8

What is the enteric nervous system?

Together, the nerve plexuses of the submucosa and the muscular compose the enteric nervous system. This nervous system, which is a division of the autonomic nervous system, is extremely important in controlling movement and secretion within the tract.

9

The peritoneum is a membrane of what type?

It's a serous membrane. This is probably also why the outer layer of the digestive system is called the serosa.

10

Mention the fluids or enzymes in the mouth responsible for digestion.

1. Saliva
2. Salivary amylase
3. Lysozyme

11

Mention the fluids or enzymes in the stomach responsible for digestion.

1. Hydrochloric acid
2. Pepsin
3. Mucus
4. Intrinsic factor

12

Mention the fluids or enzymes in the small intestine and associated glands that are released by the liver.

1. Bile salts

13

Mention the fluids or enzymes in the small intestine and associated glands that are released by the pancreas.

1. Bicarbonate ions
2. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
3. Pancreatic amylase
4. Lipase
5. Nucleases

14

Mention the fluids or enzymes in the small intestine and associated glands that are released by the duodenal glands and goblet cells.

Mucus

15

Mention the fluids or enzymes in the small intestine and associated glands that are released by the small intestine

1. Peptidase
2. Sucrase
3. Lactase
4. Maltase

16

What is the source and function of saliva?

Saliva is produced by the salary glands. It moistens and lubricates food, neutralises bacterial acids, flushes bacteria from the oral cavity.

17

What is the source and function of salivary amylase?

Salivary amylase is produced by the salivary glands. It digests starch.

18

What is the source and function of lysozyme?

Lysozyme is produced by the salivary glands. It has weak antibacterial action.

19

What is the source and function of hydrochloric acid?

Hydrochloric acid is produced by the gastric glands. It kills bacteria and converts pepsinogen to pepsin.

20

What is the source and function of pepsin?

Pepsin is produced by the gastric glands. It digests protein.

21

What is the source and function of mucus in the stomach?

Mucus is produced by the mucous cells in the stomach. It protects stomach lining.

22

What is the source and function of intrinsic factor?

Intrinsic factor is produced by the gastric glands. It binds to vitamin B12, and aids in its absorption.

23

What is the source and function of bile salts?

Bile salts are produced by the liver. They help emulsify fat.

24

What is the source and function of bicarbonate ions?

Bicarbonate ions are produced by the pancreas and help neutralise stomach acid.

25

What is the source and function of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase?

They are all produced by the pancreas, and help digest protein.

26

What is the source and function of pancreatic (!) amylase?

Yes, it is produced by the pancreas. It helps digest starch.

27

What is the source and function of Lipase.

Lipase is produced by the pancreas. It helps digest lipid.

28

What is the source and function of nucleases?

Nucleases is produced by the pancreas, and helps digest nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)

29

What is the source and function of mucus in the small intestine and associated glands?

Mucus is produced by the duodenal glands and goblet cells. It helps protect duodenum from stomach acid and digestive enzymes.

30

What is the source and function of peptidases?

Peptidases are produced by the small intestine, and help digest polypeptide.

31

What is the source and function of sucrase?

Sucrase is produced by the small intestine, and helps digest sucrose.

32

What is the source and function of maltase?

Maltase is produced by the small intestine, and helps digest maltose.

33

The small intestine is divided into the ...

duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

34

In what part of the small intestine does most of the absorption occur?

In the duodenum and jejunum.

35

The liver receives blood from...

The hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein.

36

What are the two main functions of the liver?

1. The liver produces bile, which contains bile salts that emulsify fats, and excretory products.
2. The liver stores and processes nutrients, produces new molecules, and detoxifies molecules.

37

What are the two main functions of the pancreas?

1. The pancreas produces HCO3- and digestive enzymes.
2. Acidic chyme stimulates the release of a watery bicarbonate solution that neutralises acidic chyme. Fatty acids and amino acids in the duodenum stimulate the release of pancreatic enzymes.

38

What is chyme?

Chyme (/kaɪm/; from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice"[1][2]) is the semifluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach into the duodenum and moves through the intestines during digestion.[3]

39

What are the three main functions of the large intestine?

1. The functions of the large intestine are faces production and water absorption.

40

What are the effects of waging on the digestive system?

1. The layers of the digestive tract thin, and the blood supply decreases.
2. Defences of the digestive tract decline, leaving it more sensitive to infection and the effects of toxic agents.
3. Tooth enamel becomes thinner, and the gingival recede, exposing dentin, which may become painful and affect eating habits.