16. Tumour Classification Flashcards Preview

EMS - Mechanisms of Disease > 16. Tumour Classification > Flashcards

Flashcards in 16. Tumour Classification Deck (39):
1

how are tumours broadly classified?

benign/malignant
primary/secondary
histogenic origin

2

why do tumours need to be classified?

they behave differently
different prognosis and treatment

3

according to histogenic classification, which tumours are common?

epithelium
mesenchymal
melanocytes
blood and related cells
CNS tumours

4

according to histogenic classification, which tumours are less common?

germ cell tumour
embryonal tumours
others

5

what are the 2 types of epithelial tumours (and their normal function)?

1. surface epithelia - protection
2. glandular epithelia - glands and ducts for secretion

6

what is the suffix for benign epithelial tumours?

-oma

7

what are surface epithelial tumours called?

papilloma

8

what are glandular epithelial tumours called?

adenoma

9

what other information is required to further identify a tumour?

the cell type of origin (if surface epithelium)
the glandular tissue of origin (if glandular epithelium)

10

what are malignant surface epithelial tumours called?

carcinomas

11

how are malignant epithelial tumours named?

(cell of origin) carcinoma
eg. squamous cell carcinoma
special reference made to the degree of differentiation

12

what are malignant epithelial tumours derived from glandular epithelium called?

adenocarcinoma

13

what is the suffix for benign mesenchymal tumours?

oma (preceded by tissue or cell of origin)

14

what is a benign tumour of the smooth muscle called?

leiomyoma

15

what is a benign tumour of skeletal muscle called?

rhabdomyoma

16

what is a benign tumour of adipose tissue called?

lipoma

17

what is a benign tumour of blood vessels called?

angioma

18

what is a benign tumour of bone called?

osteoma

19

what is a benign tumour of cartilage called?

chondroma

20

what is a benign tumour of fibrous tissue called?

fibroma

21

what are malignant mesenchymal tumours called?

sarcomas
preceded by the cell to tissue of origin

22

what is a malignant tumour of smooth muscle called?

leiomyosarcoma

23

what is a malignant tumour of skeletal muscle called?

rhabdomyosarcoma

24

what is a malignant tumour of adipose tissue called?

liposarcoma

25

what is a malignant tumour of blood vessels called?

angiosarcoma

26

what is a malignant tumour of bone called?

osteosarcoma

27

what is a malignant tumour of cartilage called?

chondrosarcoma

28

what is a malignant tumour of fibrous tissue called?

fibrosarcoma

29

what is a benign tumour of melanocytes called?

menocytic nevus

30

what is a malignant tumour of melanocytes called?

melanoma

31

what are malignant tumours of blood cells called?

leukaemia - white cells
lymphoma - lymphocytes
myeloma - plasma cells

32

what are the different types of CNS tumours?

meningioma
astrocytoma
oligodendroglioma
ependymoma
medulloblastoma

33

where do germ cell tumours commonly arise from?

gonads. tumour of the germ cells

34

what are the classes of germ cell tumours?

seminomatous tumours
eg. seminoma
non-seminomatous tumours (eg. teratoma-teeth, hair, muscle,neural, cartilage)

35

in which patients can embryonal tumours bee seen?

under 5 years
histological resemblance to the embryonic form of the organ from which they arise

36

examples of embryonal tumours

retinoblastoma
nephroblastoma
neuroblastoma
hepatoblastoma

37

examples of malignant tumours with benign names

melanoma
mesothelioma
myeloma
lymphoma

38

what is a hamartoma?

a non-neoplastic overgrowth of normal tissue, indigenous to the site of occurrence. results in developmental abnormalities

39

what is a choristoma (heterotrophic rest)?

nodules of organ parenchyma in another organ