3. Acute Inflammation Flashcards Preview

EMS - Mechanisms of Disease > 3. Acute Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Acute Inflammation Deck (30):
1

what is an inflammatory exudate?

a fluid rich in protein and cellular elements that oozes out of blood vessels due to inflammation and is deposited in nearby tissues

2

what is fibrosis?

the thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually as a result of injury

3

what is suppuration?

the formation of pus

4

what is an abscess?

a swollen area within body tissue, containing an accumulation of pus

5

what is pyrexia?

high temperature/fever

6

what is an acute phase reaction?

a general term attributed to a group of systemic and metabolic changes that occur within hours of an inflammatory stimulus

7

what is acute inflammation?

a non specific initial reaction to tissue damage

8

what are the 2 main causes of acute inflammation?

infection
tissue death

9

what are the causes of tissue death?

ischaemia
trauma
toxins
chemical insults
thermal injury
radiation

10

what is the prognosis after acute inflammation?

1. if cells can regrow - healing by regeneration
2. if cells cannot regrow - healing by repair
3. if damaging agent persists - chronic inflammation

11

what is the purpose of acute inflammation?

1. clear away dead tissues
2. locally protect from infection
3. allow access of immune system components

12

what are the 4 cardinal signs of infection?

1. calor - heat
2. rumour - redness
3. dolor - pain
4. tumour - swelling

13

what determines the manifestation of the cardinal signs?

anatomical considerations and which stage of the process is most prominent. this varies with cause or with time

14

what are the manifestations of inflammation in different organs?

serous
fibrinous
purulent

15

what are the components of an acute inflammatory response?

1. vascular reaction
2. exudative reaction
3. cellular reaction

16

what happens in the vascular reaction?

microvascular dilatation leading to increased flow
flow then decreases
permeability of blood vessels increases

17

what chemicals act as mediators of the vascular reaction?

histamine
bradykinin
NO
leukotriene B4
complement components

18

what is an exudative reaction?

formation of inflammatory exudate

19

what are the contents of an acute inflammatory exudate?

proteins
immunoglobulins
fibrinogen

20

why is there a constant turnover of inflammatory exudate?

dilution of noxious agents
transport of noxious agents to lymph nodes
supply of nutrients
spread of inflammatory mediators
spread of antibodies
spread of drugs

21

what is involved in the cellular reaction?

migration of inflammatory cells out of vessels, and accumulation of neutrophils in extracellular space

22

when is pus formed?

when, in severe cases, neutrophils, cellular debris and bacteria accumulate in an extracellular space

23

what are the biomarkers of an acute phase reaction?

CRP
ESR

24

which is the commonest white cell in the blood?

neutrophils

25

how do neutrophils move into tissues?

directional chemotaxis

26

what is the lifespan of a neutrophil?

low. as low as a few hours when they are in tissues

27

how do neutrophils move into tissues?

from axial stream to margination on injury
rolling and adhesion to mediators (pavementing)
migrating outside capillary
due to chemotaxis

28

what are the cell derived mediators of acute inflammation?

prostaglandins
leukotrienes
PAF
cytokines
NO
chemokine
histamine

29

what are the plasma derived mediators of acute inflammation?

kinin system
clotting pathway
thrombolytic pathway
complement pathway

30

what are the consequences of acute inflammation?

if minimal tissue damage - resolution
if some tissue damage - fibrosis
if marked neutrophil reaction with tissue damage - suppuration
if damaging agent persists - chronic inflammation