17 Cellular adaptation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17 Cellular adaptation Deck (22)
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1
Q

What do cell adaptations involve changes in? (5).

A
Size.
Number.
Phenotype.
Metabolic activity.
Function.
2
Q

Which cell type can adapt easily to a change in environment?

A

Labile cells.

3
Q

Which cell type cannot adapt to changes in environment?

A

Terminally differentiated cells.

4
Q

What is the difference between physiological and pathological cell adaptation?

A

Responding to physiological changes vs disease related changes.

5
Q

Differentiate between hypertrophy and hyperplasia:

A

Hypertrophy: increased size.
Hyperplasia: increased numbers.

6
Q

Give two examples of physiological hypertrophy:

A

Uterus in pregnancy.

Adenomatous hyperplasia of prostate.

7
Q

Which type of cell population is hypertrophy particularly seen in?

A

Permanent cell populations e.g. skeletal of cardiac muscle.

8
Q

What is sub cellular hypertrophy/hyperplasia?

A

Increase in size/number of organelles within a cell.

9
Q

Give an example of sub cellular hypertrophy

A

Barbiturates cause hypertrophy or smooth ER, increasing the metabolism of other drugs.

10
Q

Give two examples of hyperplasia (not cancerous):

A

Gynaecomastia.

Compensatory hyperplasia of kidney in response to contralateral hypoplasia.

11
Q

Define atrophy:

A

Reduction in size of organ/tissue due to decrease in cell size or number.

12
Q

Give two examples of physiological atrophy:

A

Embryogenesis.

Uterus after pregnancy/menopause.

13
Q

What are the reasons for pathological atrophy? (6).

A
Decreased workload.
Loss of innervation.
Decreased blood supply.
Inadequate nutrition.
Loss of endocrine function.
Pressure.
14
Q

What is involution?

A

Physiological atrophy by apoptosis.

15
Q

What is agenesis?

A

Failure of embryonic cell mass formation.

16
Q

What is aplasia?

A

Failure of differentiation into organ specific tissue.

17
Q

What is dysgenesis?

A

Failure of structural organisation of tissues into an organ.

18
Q

Define metaplasia:

A

Transformation of one differentiated cell type into another.

19
Q

Give an example of physiological metaplasia/

A

Moving of squamo-columnar junction in cervix during puberty and menopause.

20
Q

What causes metaplasia of transitional bladder epithelium to squamous epithelium? (3).

A

Bladder calculus.
Schistosomiasis.
Longstanding catheter.

21
Q

What causes metaplasia of fibrocollagenous tissue into bone?

A

Chronic trauma.

22
Q

What is dysplasia?

A

Earliest morphological manifestation of neoplasia.
Irreversible but non-invasive.
Showes cytological features of malignancy.