22 Tumour behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22 Tumour behaviour Deck (21)
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1
Q

What are the mechanisms of tumour invasion?

A

Increased motility.
Decreased adhesion.
Proteolytic enzyme secretion.
Mechanical pressure.

2
Q

Which molecule controls cell to cell adhesion?

A

E-cadherin.

3
Q

Which molecule controls cell to matrix adhesion?

A

Integrins.

4
Q

Differentiate between epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

A

Epithelial: tightly connected, polarised and tethered.
Mesenchymal: loosely connected and able to migrate.

5
Q

Which proteolytic enzymes do invasive neoplasms produce?

A

Matrix metalloproteinases.

6
Q

What do interstitial collagenases break down?

A

Collagen type I, II, III.

7
Q

What do gelatinases break down? (2).

A

Collagen type IV.

Gelatin.

8
Q

What do stomolysins break down? (2).

A

Collagen type IV.

Proteoglycans.

9
Q

How does mechanical pressure aid tumour invasion?

A

Tumour forms mass, occludes vessel, atrophies surrounding tissue and invades along lines of least resistance.

10
Q

What are the eight stages of metastasis?

A
Detachment.
Invasion.
Intravasation (gets into blood vessels)
Survival against host defences.
Adherence.
Extravasation (gets out of blood vessels).
Growth.
Angiogenesis.
11
Q

What are the two theories surrounding tumour metastasis?

A

Mechanical: anatomy driven.

Seed and soil hypothesis.

12
Q

What are the two types of bone mets?

Where does each come from?

A

Lytic: lung.
Sclerotic: prostate.

13
Q

Which proteins inhibit angiogenesis? (4).

A

ECM proteins.
Thrombospondin.
Canstatin.
Endostatin.

14
Q

What is the stage of a cancer?

A

How advanced is the tumour?

Where has it spread to?

15
Q

What is the grade of a cancer?

A

How aggressive is it?

How different does it look from the tissue of origin?

16
Q

What is TNM used for?

A

Staging tumours.

17
Q

What is TNM?

A

Tumour: size + extent of 1o.
Node: presence + size of mets.
Metastases: presence + no lymph mets.

18
Q

When do most deaths from cancer occur in?

A

First five years.

19
Q

What is Duke’s staging used for?

A

Colorectal cancer.

20
Q

Who grades tumours?

A

Histopathologists.

21
Q

What four factors are used when grading a tumour?

A

Differentiation.
Nuclear pleomorphism + size.
Mitotic activity.
Necrosis.