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Flashcards in 18 Public Health Policy Deck (14)
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Primary prevention

Reduce incidence
Stop the emergence of new cases of events
Ex: vaccination


Secondary prevention

Reduce prevalence
Early disease detection
Ex: screening


Tertiary prevention

Reduce the number/impact of complications
Ex: slowing the progression of MS, stroke rehabilitation


2 benefits of an expanded risk factor model

1. Risk factors are unequally distributed, so this allows us to understand and locate the factors that may explain the unequal distribution
2. Provides us with multiple key points where we can intervene to reduce the incidence of disease


Macroenvironmental exposures

Broad risk factors that affect the entire population
Ex: air pollution, water quality


Microenvironmental exposures

Things that affect the individual
Ex: diet, exercise, if you wear a seatbelt while driving


Policy action of health issues must consider which 4 things

Political considerations (political will)
Economic factors
Social values
Good evidence


Population approach

Lower the mean level of risk factor within the population to shift the whole distribution
Encourage everyone to change, shifting the entire distribution


High-Risk approach

Narrow group of people are targeted to change a very specific risk
Move high risk individuals into normal range


What are 5 factors that limit the benefits of the high risk approach?

Personal motivation
Supportive family
Supportive social environment


Advantages to the high risk approach

Provider and patient motivation
Therapies/approaches tailored to individual patients may be more effective and safe
Avoids those who are not at risk
Benefit-risk ratio favorable


Disadvantages to the high risk approach

Limited effectiveness
High cost
Change rests on individual
Effects are often temporary (deal with condition not root causes)
Only directed at high risk individuals, not moderate risk


Advantages to population approach

Broad impact on many people (high avoidable burden)
Cost effective
Collective rather than individual efforts
Easier to implement


Disadvantages to population approach

Low patient/physician motivation
May not be publicly acceptable
May not respect autonomy
Cannot be tailored to individual needs
May benefit some groups more than others