Flashcards in 18b Treatment for Parasitic Infection (Worms) Goad Deck (18)
What are the signs and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis?
Pinworm. Abdominal pain, Grinding teeth, Insomnia, Irritability, Nocturnal perianal itching. Highly contagious
What drugs are used to treat Pinworm?
Mebendazole (Vermox) - DOC. Pyrantel pamoate (OTC)
What are the general characteristics of Mebendazole (Vermox)?
DOC for Enterobius vermicularis. Broad spectrum antihelminthic. Cidal against adult/larval Ascaris, pinworm, hookworm. Pregnancy Category C
How is Mebendazole (Vermox) dosed for pinworm?
100mg chewable tabs (no liquid). Take with fatty meal to increase BA. Single dose therapy patient and family
What are the ADRs associated with Mebendazole?
Rare: Abdominal cramping
How is Pyrantel Pamoate dosed for pinworm?
Single dose therapy patient and family, evaluate at 2 weeks for 2nd dose need. 11mg/kg; max 1gm dose. Liquid (50mg/ml) and soft gels. See pediatrician if < 2 years. Pregnancy category C
What are the ADRs associated with Pyrantel Pamoate?
HA, N/V, abdominal cramps
How do you acquire Taeniasis and Cysticercosis?
Eating raw or undercooked meat
What is Taeniasis?
Tape worm infection. Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), solium (pork tapeworm), asiatica (Asian tapeworm)
What is Cysticercosis?
Trop penetrates gut, lodges in muscles or brain
What is the Taeniasis and Cysticercosis treatment?
Kill living worms and cysticerci (Albendazole or Praziquantel). Antihelminthic therapy NOT indicated for calcified cysts (dead worms)
What are the general characteristics of Albendazole?
Active against larval/adult nematodes (ovacidal against Ascaris). Fatty meal increase levels 2-4 fold. Single dose treatment has few ADRs. Better tolerated than mebendazole and thiabendazole
What are the general characteristics of Praziquantel (Biltricide)?
Kills adult worms. PO 1-3x a day x1 day (depending on infection treated)
What are the ADRs associated with Praziquantel?
Cardiac arrhythmias, seizure
What is Schistosomiasis?
Trematode (blood fluke): Schistosoma mansoni, japonicum, haematobium. "Swimmers itch". High fever, malaise, cough, diarrhea, and hives
What is treatment for Schistosomiasis?
Treat with Praziquantel (1 tab BID x1 day)
What is the cycle for Schistosomiasis?
Defecation near river, egg hatches in water --> Miracidium penetrates snail host --> cercaria released into water where it infects human host