19. Tumour Classification Flashcards Preview

EMS - MoD > 19. Tumour Classification > Flashcards

Flashcards in 19. Tumour Classification Deck (49):
1

Name 2 types of benign epithelial tumour

- papilloma (SURFACE EPITHELIUM)
- adenoma (GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM)

2

How are benign epithelial tumours further classified?

- by cell type of origin eg. squamous cell (SURFACE)
- by name of glandular tissue of origin eg. colonic (GLANDULAR)

3

What is the name of a benign tumour of squamous epithelium e.g. skin?

Squamous cell papilloma

4

What is the name of a benign tumour of the ductal epithelium of the pancreas?

Pancreatic cystadenoma

5

What are the exceptions to the normal rules of naming benign epithelial tumours?

- melanoma
- lymphoma
- seminoma
- mesothelioma
etc

6

What are malignant epithelial tumours called?

Carcinomas

7

How are malignant epithelial tumours derived from surface epithelial named?

By prefixing carcinoma with the cell of origin eg. squamous cell carcinoma

8

What is the name for malignant tumours derived from glandular/ductular epithelium?

Adenocarcinomas

9

Name a benign tumour of stratified squamous epithelium eg. skin, oropharynx etc.

Squamous cell papilloma

10

Name a bening tumour of basal cells of the skin

Basal cell papilloma

11

Name a benign tumour of transitional epithelium of the bladder

Transitional cell papilloma

12

Name a benign tumour of glandular epithelium of liver

Liver cell adenoma

13

Name a benign tumour of glandular epithelium of thyroid

Follicular adenoma

14

Name a malignant tumour of basal cells of the skin

Basal cell carcinoma

15

Name a malignant tumour of glandular epithelium of colon

Colonic adenocarcinoma

16

Name a malignant tumour of glandular epithelium of breast

Breast adenocarcinoma

17

How are benign mesenchymal tumours named?

Prefix = tissue or cell of origin
Suffix = '-oma'

18

What is a benign tumour of bone?

Osteoma

19

What is a benign tumour of adipose tissue?

Lipoma

20

What is a benign tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomyoma

21

What is a benign tumour of skeletal muscle?

Rhabdomyoma

22

What is a benign tumour of a blood vessel?

Angioma / haemangioma

23

What is a benign tumour of cartilage?

Chondroma

24

What is a benign tumour of fibrous tissue?

Fibroma

25

What are malignant mesenchymal tumours called?

Sarcomas

26

How are malignant mesenchymal tumours named?

Prefix = tissue or cell of origin
Suffix = '-sarcoma'

27

What is a malignant tumour of adipose tissue?

Liposarcoma

28

What is a malignant tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomyosarcoma

29

What is a malignant tumour of cartilage?

Chondrosarcoma

30

What is a benign tumour of melanoyctes called?

Melanocytic nevus

31

What is a malignant tumour of melanocytes called?

Melanoma

32

Name 3 types of malignant tumour of blood cells

- leukaemia
- lymphoma
- myeloma

33

Name 5 types of CNS tumours

- meningioma
- astrocytoma
- oligoendroglioma
- ependymoma
- medulloblastoma

34

What is a meningioma?

Arises from meningeal tissue of brain (usually benign)

35

What is an astrocytoma?

Arise from the star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes

36

Name a type of astrocytoma

Glioblastoma multiforme (most common and most malignant of the glial tumours)

37

What is an oligoendroglioma?

Originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell

38

What is an ependymoma?

Arises from the ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system

39

Where are germ cell tumours common?

Gonads

40

How can germ cell tumours be divided?

- seminomatous
- non-seminomatous

41

Give an example of a seminomatous germ cell tumour

Seminoma

42

Give an example of a non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

Teratoma (teeth/hair/muscle/neural/cartilage)

43

What are the features of embryonal tumours?

- occur in very young (under 5)
- have a histological resemblance to embryonic cells of that organ

44

Give 4 examples of embryonal tumours

- retinoblastoma (in eye)
- nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour of kidney)
- neuroblastoma (adrenal medulla or nerve ganglia)
- hepatoblastoma (liver)

45

What is a carcinosarcoma?

Malignant tumors that consist of a mixture of carcinoma (or epithelial cancer) and sarcoma (or mesenchymal/connective tissue cancer) eg. in ovaries

46

Name 4 malignant tumours with benign names

- melanoma
- mesothelioma
- myeloma
- lymphoma

47

What is a hamartoma?

- non-neoplastic overgrowth of normal tissue
- indigenous to the site of occurrence
- developmental abnormalities
- eg. lung hamartoma

48

Hamartomas usually consist of what?

2 mature cell types normally found in the organ in which the lesion lies e.g. lung hamartoma = cartilage and bronchial epithelium

49

What is a choristoma?

- excess of normal tissue in an abnormal situation
- nodules of organ parenchyma in another organ
- aka. heterotropic rests
- eg. normal (non-neoplastic) pancreas nodule in stomach