Flashcards in 1905 Revolution Deck (40):
What caused an increase in striking workers in December 1904?
Four workers from the Putilov steel works being dismissed.
How many workers were on strike in January 1905?
What was the Assembly of Russian Factory Workers?
Established by Father Georgiy Gapon in 1904 to support local workers and pursue industrial reform. This was encouraged by the Ministry for the Interior as it channelled worker discontent away from other political organisations. Had 6000-8000 members by end of 1904.
When was Bloody Sunday?
9 January 1905
Approximately how many people marched to the Winter Palace on Bloody Sunday? What were they holding?
Up to 150,000. They were carrying religious icons and their petition.
What was the death toll at the Winter Palace? What was the total death toll of the day?
40 people . 200-300 people.
Where else were soldiers shooting at the people?
Nevsky Prospekt, and Troitsky Bridge
What did Nicholas II become known as after Bloody Sunday?
Nicholas the Bloody
What did the Official History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union say of Bloody Sunday?
'On that day the workers received a bloody lesson. It was their faith in the tsar that was riddled by bullets on that day.'
What were the demands of the petition on Bloody Sunday?
'Our first request was that our employers discuss our needs together with us...Reduce the working day to eight hours; for them to set wages in agreement with us...to increase the wages of unskilled workers and women to one rouble per day; to overtime work; to provide medical care attentively and without insult; to build shops so that it is possible to work there and not face death.'
What did Father Georgiy Gapon write of Bloody Sunday in The Story of My Life?
'At last the firing ceased..Horror crept into my heart. The thought flashed through my mind, 'And this is the work of our Little Father, the Tsar.'..'There is no longer any tsar for us!' I exclaimed.'
What did Figes say of Bloody Sunday?
"The turning point of the Revolution."
What did Maxim Gorky say of Bloody Sunday in a letter?
'The Russian Revolution has begun: I send you my sincere congratulations/ People have died - but don't let that trouble you - only blood can change the colour of history.'
How many workers strikes in January as a consequence of Bloody Sunday?
When did local government become paralysed in 1905?
What was a further catalyst to unrest in May 1905?
News of Russia's defeat at the battle of Tsushima
'The strikes and protests which followed the Bloody Sunday revolt in St Petersburg were especially intense
in the non-Russian borderlands...where local and political tensions were reinforced by a widespread hate of Russian rule.' Figes
How many workers rose up in Riga and when? How many died?
15,000 workers in Riga rose up on 13 January. 70 dead.
'In the ten Polish provinces there are more strikes in the spring and summer of 1905 than in
the rest of the empire combined.' Figes
How many workers took part in demonstrations in Warsaw after Bloody Sunday? How many were killed?
100,000 people . 93 killed.
'Nationalists everywhere welcomed Russia's defeat in the belief that it would
bring down the Tsar and thus pave the way for their own autonomy. In many of these non-Russian lands virtually the whole population became involved in the national liberation movement.' Figes
What did Figes say of the mutiny from troops returning from Manchuria and its repression?
'By dawn, when the massacre finally ended, 2000 people had been killed and 3000 wounded...In itself, the mutiny had been a minor threat. But it was a major embarrassment to the regime, for it showed the world that the revolution had spread to the heart of its own military machine.'
When did the crew of the Prince Potemkin battleship mutiny and kill their officers?
14 June 1905
How many people staged a rally at Moscow University and what did they do? What was this reflective of?
3000 students burned portraits of the tsar and hung red flags. This was reflective of the political fervour throughout institutions of higher learning;
What happened on 18 March 1905?
Authorities ordered all institutions of higher learning to be closed for the remainder of the academic year.
What was the Union of Unions?
Organisation of smaller unions formed in 1905. Led by liberal politician Pavel Milyukov. They demanded a Constituent Assembly and voting rights.
By when were the economies of Moscow and St Petersburg paralysed?
14 October 1905
What did Count Sergei Witte recommend to Nicholas to bring about peace in late 1905?
Significant reform; removal of the State Council, elected members of government, Tsar must adopt a policy of freedom. October Manifesto.
What occurred on 17 October 1905?
Release of the October Manifesto
What was decreed in the October Manifesto?
Freedom of speech and association, elections to the State Duma, no law shall take place without the assent of the State Duma.
What did Leon Trotsky say of the October Manifesto?
'We have been given a constitution, but absolutism remains…everything is given and nothing is given. '
How did revolutionary groups respond to the October Manifesto?
Octobrists accept reform. Kadets push for further concessions. St Petersburg soviet saw it as a trick for the Tsar to rally his forces and end the revolution.
General Strike sees the Soviets gain influence so they encouraged workers to strike.
What occurred on 3 December 1905? Why?
260 deputies (half) of St Petersburg Soviet are arrested. The chairman had been arrested, following calls for uprisings after the October Manifesto, and so the Soviet organised an armed uprising; thus they were arrested.
What occurred on 6 December and what was the result?
Moscow Soviet calls for a strike that cripples the city.
When did the Moscow strike end and how many people died?
18 December. Over 1000 died.
How did Industrial Workers respond to the October Manifesto?
Many industrial workers wanted specific reforms and were pre occupied with their daily concerns; eight hour working day, workers council, medical services etc. They did not care much for constituent assemblies or socialist revolutions. Could not afford to go on strike again.
How did peasants respond to the October Manifesto?
Wished for immediate change; more land and lower taxes. October Manifesto were largely appeased; their redemption payments for 1905 were halved.
How did Sheila Fitzpatrick describe the 1905 revolution?
The political outcome of the 1905 Revolution was 'ambiguous and in some ways unsatisfactory to all concerned.'
"The workers organised independently of the bourgeoisie in the soviets. Peasant uprisings to seize the land
occurred throughout the country. Not only the peasants but also the revolutionary parts of the army tended towards the soviets..The liberals backed away from the revolution exactly at the moment when it became clear that to shake stardom would not be enough, it must be overthrown.' Trotsky