Flashcards in Tsarist Russia and 1905 Revolution Deck (40):
What were the five main classes in Tsarist Russia?
Peasants (82%), working class (4%), professional middle class(1.5%), upper class (12%), ruling class (0.5%)
What were the three key systems of government in tsarist Russia, and their function?
State Council of Imperial Russia, personal advisors personally appointed. The Cabinet of Ministers, personally appointed, worked separately. Senate; transforms the will of the Tsar into law.
What were punishments for political protest?
Censorship, imprisonment, exile.
How did Figes describe the provincial governors?
"To lovers of liberty the provincial governor was the very personification of Tsarist oppression and despotism."
Who did the provincial governors officially answerable to?
Ministry of the Interior
What were the two police forces?
Okhrana, secret police. Standard police force for general law and order.
Approximately how many people worked in the zemstvos and what were they called?
70,000, Third Element
Who were the little tsars and how did they come about?
Land captains brought about to curb the liberalism of the zemstvos. Executive and judicial power over peasants, could interfere and abuse the peasantry.
How did John Bite describe Nicholas II?
Had a "weakness of will" and was "poorly educated, narrow in intellectual horizons, a wretchedly bad judge of people, isolated from Russian society."
How did Orlando Figes describe Nicholas II?
"It was not a 'weakness of will' that was the undoing of the last tsar but, on the contrary, a wilful determination to rule from the throne, despite the fact that he clearly lacked the necessary qualities to do so."
How did modernisation of the Tsars have a negative impact on the people?
Rising price, taxes, interest rates.
How many military suppressed industrial strikes were there in 1893 and then in 1902?
19, to 522
What was the Russification program and did it work?
An attempt by the government to get people in Russia to seem themselves in Russians. This did not particularly work, rather led to the persecution of ethnic minorities and led to backlash.
Who were the Union of Russian People?
Monarchists who supported the persecution of Jews.
What were pogroms?
Violent killings in 1905-6 of non-Russians in major cities by groups like Union of Russian Men and Black Hundred gangs.
Who were the Socialist Revolutionaries?
Led by Viktor Chernov and Alexander Kerensky. Fought for land ownership for peasants, violence to overthrow the tsar. Largest revolutionary group.
Maximalists, left faction: Socialism, terrorism, assassinating bourgeoisie.
Revolutionaries, right faction: Moderate, cooperative.
Who were the Social Democratic Workers Party?
Marxists, supported by industrial working class. Believed Russia was in position for revolution with growing industrial class.
What did Lenin assert in the What is to be Done 1902 paper?
"I assert...no revolutionary movement can endure without a stable organisation of leaders maintaining continuity...the more we confine the membership of such an organisation to people who are professionally engaged in revolutionary activity and to have been professional trained in the art of combating the political police, the more difficult will it be to wipe out such an organisation."
Who were the Narodniks (Populists)?
Established and active in the 1870s, led by middle and upper classes, peasant based revolution, attempted to educate the masses, assassinated Alexander II in 1881 by the Peoples Will, evolved into the Socialist Revolutionary Party.
What were the two groups of liberals called?
Octobrists and Kadets
Who were the Octobrists?
Established in 1905 in response to the October Manifesto, moderate tsarists, commercial class, supported O.Manifesto and creation of the duma, non violent.
Who were the Kadets?
Established in October 1905, progressive land lords, small businessmen and intellectuals. Pursued constitutional monarchy, sought equality, civil rights, free speech, recognition of unions education. Largest liberal party, major opposition to tsarist in the duma.
When, where, and why did the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks form?
1903 at the Second Party Congress because the Social Democratic Workers party were divided over the editorial board of the party newspaper Iskra.
When did the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks officially seperate?
What did Christopher Hill say of Lenin?
"Lenin made his life-work the application of Marxism to the specific conditions of Russia. . In him two worlds met: the native revolutionary tradition, springing from the necessities of Russian life and shaped by the structure of the tsarist state, was modified by the scientific socialism, the careful analysis of the class forces in a given situation, which Lenin derived from Marxism… For these reasons, as soon as it came to the test of practice, Bolshevism…swept all before it.’
What did Shiela Fitzpatrik say of Lenin?
"Lenin differed from many other Russian Marxists in seeming actively to desire a proletarian revolution rather than simply prediction that one would ultimately occur...he insisted that the proletariat..could and should play a dominant role."
What was the trigger for Japan breaking off diplomatic negotiations with the tsar and when did this occur?
Russia annexed Manchuria in 1903, Japan broke off relations in January 1904.
When did the Russo-Japanese war begin?
8 February 1904
When did Port Arthur surrender to Japan in January 1905 and how many Russians had died?
January 1905, 31,000
When was the Battle of Mukden? What was the outcome?
February 1905, Russia land army lost. 90,000 men died.
When was the Battle of Tsushima and what was the outcome?
May. Russian Baltic Fleet defeated in less than 24 hours. Russian public is defeated.
When was the Treaty of Portsmouth? What did it do?
September 1905. Conflict officially ends, Japan retains control of Porth Arthur and maintained Korea in its sphere of influence. Russia cedes territory. Sergei With prevents Russia from having to pay compensation.
When was Vyacheslav Plehve, Minister for Interior, assassinated?
15 July 1904
Who and why caused Plehve's assassination?
Socialist Revolutionary Combat Organisation, he was greatly disliked for his role in the Russo-Japanese War.
Who replaced Plehve as Minister for Interior?
Prince P.D Sviatopolk-Mirskii. He was liberal and well received; relaxed censorship, supported zemstvos, abolished corporal punishment.
What occurred on 17 September 1904?
Paris Conference; various socialist groups meet up in secret (Union of Liberation, Socialist Revolutionaries). Provided a united front against autocracy.
When was the unofficial national Zemstvo Conference held in Petersburg? What did they call for?
6-9 November 1904. They called for a constitution and other reforms.
What did Nicholas II say when Mirskii presented the proposed reforms from the Zemstvo conference to him?
"I shall never, under any circumstances, agree to the representative form of government because I consider it harmful to the people whom God has entrusted my care."
What contributed to economic hardship from October 1903 to October 1904?
Real wages had decreased by up to one quarter, industrial recession, poor working conditions, poor harvests, rising cost of living.