1A Flashcards Preview

UNC EXSS 175 > 1A > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1A Deck (69):
1

What does Anatomy & Physiology provide?

foundation for understanding body parts and function

2

Anatomy Defined

-Body Part
-“The process of cutting up”
-Science of body structures and the relationships among them
(How they interact w/ each other, How are they alined w/ each other)

3

Physiology

Function

4

Types of Anatomy

1.) Gross Anatomy
2.) Clinically Oriented Anatomy
3.) Surface Anatomy

5

Gross Anatomy

Study of structures that can be examined without a microscope
("Cutting up", dissection)

6

Clinically Oriented Anatomy

-Emphasizes structure and function
-Relates to medicine and other health sciences (PT, OT)
-Visually observe w/o use of microscope

7

Surface Anatomy

-Visualization in the “mind’s eye” of structures that lie beneath the skin
(know anatomy, able to palpate different structures through the skin and visualize what's going on beneath the surface due to prior knowledge w/o the use of an x-ray)

8

Major Body Systems (11)

-Skeletal
-Articular
-Muscular
-Nervous
-Reproductive
-Digestive
-Endocrine
-Respiratory
-Cardiovascular
-Lymphatic
-Integumentary

9

Skeletal System Components

-All Bones (associated cartilages and joints)
-Joints can be subdivided into the articular system

10

Skeletal System Functions

-Supports and protects body (organs, allows us to stand and move)
-Provides surface area for muscle attachments
-Assists in body movements
-Bone cells store and create blood cells

11

Articular System Components

-The "joints" of the body
-Basically combined with skeletal system

12

Reproductive System Components

-Gonads: Testes and Ovaries (sex organs)
-Associated organs
-Internal vs. External (Penis & Vagina)

13

Reproductive System Functions

-Produce reproductive cells (sperm & ova)
-Transportation and storage of reproductive cells
-Release of regulatory hormones (works closely w/ the endocrine system)

14

Another name for Urinary System?

"Renal" mostly associated with Kidneys

15

Urinary System Components

Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra

16

Urinary System Functions

-Produce, store and eliminate urine (waste) from chemical processes within the body
-Regulates volume & chemical composition of blood (maintain homeostasis)
-Regulates fluid & electrolyte balance

17

Muscular System Components

-Skeletal Muscle tissue (what we think of and what we can see *gains*)
-Smooth Muscle tissue (visceral) located in intestines and arteries
-Cardiac Muscle tissue (involuntary)

18

Muscular System Functions

-Produces Movement
-Maintain Posture
-Production of heat (metabolic heat-maintain homeostasis so all our other organs and function properly)

19

Central Nervous System Components

Bring and Spinal Cord

20

Peripheral Nervous System Components

Nerves, Special sense organs (i.e. eyes and ears)
All other smaller nerves that send signals out to the body

21

Nervous system functions

1) Regulates body activities (nerve impulses)
2) Detects changes in int/ext environment (interprets) ex. step on sharp nail
3)Muscle contraction (voluntary and involuntary muscles) and glandular secretions (works hand in hand with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis in the body)
4)Most important system for sustaining life

22

Endocrine System Components

-All hormone-producing glands (pituitary, thyroid, hypothalamus, pancreas, etc)
-Hormone-producing cells in other organs

23

Endocrine System Functions

-Regulates body activities through hormones
-Work hand-in-hand with the nervous system
-Transports chemicals in the blood to various target organs of the body

24

Digestive System Components

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated organs (salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas) 1 Tube

25

Digestive System Functions

-Achieves physical (physical mastication) and chemical breakdown (saliva, stomach acid) of food
-Absorbs nutrients (distributes to where needed in the body)
-Eliminates solid wastes

26

Respiratory System Components

Lungs and Series of associated passageways (pharynx, larynx, trachea)

27

Respiratory System Functions

-Transfer O2 (Oxygen) from inhaled air to blood
-Transfer CO2 (Carbon Dioxid) from blood to exhaled air
-Regulates acid- base balanced of body fluids (regulate homeostasis)
-Air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds

28

What is Cardiovascular System often referred as?

The "circulatory" system

29

Cardiovascular System Components

Blood, Heart, and blood vessels

30

Cardiovascular System Functions

-Blood carries O2 and nutrients to cells
-Carries CO2 and wastes from cells
-Regulates acid—base balance, temperature, & H2O content of body fluids (maintain homeostasis)
-Help defend against disease and mend damaged blood vessels

WORKS HAND IN HAND WITH LYMPHATIC

31

Lymphatic System Components

Lymphatic fluid/vessels, spleen, tonsils, etc

32

Lymphatic System Functions

-Returns proteins and plasma to CV system
-Carries lipids from GI tract to blood
-Protect against disease-causing microbes (bacteria, viruses)

33

Integumentary System Components

Skin and structures derived from it such as:
hair, nails, sweat and oil glands

34

Integumentary System Function

-Protects the body (skin is the bodies largest organ)
-Helps regulate body temperature (maintain homeostasis)
-Eliminates some waste (ex. sweating)
-Detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold

35

Anatomical Terminology

Language of Anatomy

36

What does the Anatomical Position look like?

-Standing Upright
-Arms at sides, Palms facing forward
-Head facing forward
-Feet flat on floor, facing forward


37

What is it called when the body is laying face down?

Prone

38

What is it called when the body is facing up?

Supine

39

Regional names (6)

-Head: Skull and Face
-Neck: Supports the head and attaches it to trunk
-Trunk: Chest, abdomen, and pelvis
-Upper Limbs/extremity: shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, hand, and finger
-Lower Limbs/extremity: buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, foot, and toes

40

Directional Terms

-Used by anatomists to locate structures
-Words that describe the position of one body part relative to another
-Mostly grouped into pairs

41

Superior vs. Inferior (Directional terms)

Superior (cranial or cephalic) towards the head or upper part of structure

Inferior (caudal) Away from head or lower part of structure

42

Anterior vs. Posterior (Directional terms)

Anterior (ventral or belly side) nearer to front of body

Posterior (dorsal or back) nearer to back of the body

43

Medial vs. Lateral (Directional Terms)

Medial - Nearer to the midline

Lateral - Farther from the midline

44

Proximal vs. Distal (Directional Terms)

Proximal - Nearer to point of attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to origination of a structure

Distal - Farther from point of attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from origination of a structure

45

Superficial vs. Deep (Directional Terms)

Superficial - Towards or on surface of body

Deep - Away from surface of body

46

Internal vs. External (Directional Terms)

Internal (central) toward or in interior

External (peripheral) toward or on exterior

47

Ipsilateral vs Contralateral (directional terms)

Ipsilateral - on same side of body

Contralateral - On opposite side of body

48

Parietal vs. Visceral (directional terms)

Parietal - pertaining to forming outer wall of body cavity

Visceral - Pertaining to covering of organ in ventral cavity

49

Body Cavity

Spaces that contain internal organs

50

Body Cavity Function

Help to protect, separate and support organs

51

Principle Body Cavities (4)

-Cranial cavity
-Vertebral cavity
-Thoracic cavity
-Abdominopelvic cavity

52

Cranial cavity

-formed by the cranial bones
-contains the brain

Lined with 3 layers of protective (meninges) tissue

53

Vertebral cavity

-formed by the vertebral column
-contains the spinal cord

Lined with 3 layers of protective (meninges) tissue

54

What the 3 layers of protective tissued that lines the cranial and vertebral cavity called?

Meninges

55

Thoracic "Chest" Cavity

Formed by the ribs, chest muscles (diaphragm), sternum, thoracic portion of vertebral column (V.C.)

Seperated from abdominopelvic cavity by diaphragm (inferior part of thoracic cavity)

56

3 Compartments of the Thoracic "Chest" Cavity

1) Pericardial cavity
2) Pleural cavities (2)
3) Mediastinum

57

Pericardial Cavity (compartment of thoracic cavity)

fluid-filled space that surrounds the heart

58

Pleural cavities (2)(compartment of thoracic cavity)

Each pleural cavity surrounds one lung and contains a small amount of fluid

59

Mediastinum (compartment of thoracic cavity)

Region between the lungs, extending from the sternum to the V.C. and from neck to the diaphragm
Contains all the thoracic organs except the lungs themselves
Heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and several large blood vessels

60

Abdominopelvic Cavity

-Extends from diaphragm to groin
-Enclosed by abdominal wall and pelvic bones/muscles

61

What are the 2 compartments of the Abdominopelvic Cavity?

1) Abdominal Cavity
2) Pelvic Cavity

62

What does the Abdominal Cavity contain (compartment of abdominopelvic cavity)

Contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gall-bladder, small intestine and most of large intestine

63

What does the Pelvic cavity contain (compartment of abdominopelvic cavity)

Contains the urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal he reproductive organs

64

What are the organs called that are inside of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity?

Viscera

65

4 quadrants of the Abdominopelvic cavity?

Right Upper (RUQ)
Left Upper (LUQ)
Right Lower (RLQ)
Left Lower (LLQ)

66

What consist of the RUQ

Liver, Gall bladder, Ascending Colon, Right Kidney

67

What consist of the LUQ

Spleen, Body of Stomach, Descending Colon, Left Kidney, Pancreas

68

What consist of the RLQ

Cecum, Appendix

69

What consist of the LLQ

Sigmoid Colon