3a Axial Skeleton System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3a Axial Skeleton System Deck (68):
1

Axial Skeleton Components

Skull, facial bones, spinal cord

2

5 basic types of bones

-long
-short
-flat
-irregular
-sesamoid

3

Long

compact (humerus)

4

short

spongy except surface (wrist-trapezoid)

5

Flat

plates of compact enclosing spongy (sternum and scapula)

6

Irregular

variable (vertebra)

7

Sesamoid

develop in tendons or ligaments (patella-knee caps)

8

Sutural bones

in joints between skull bones

immovable joints that hold the skull bones together

9

Skull is composed of how many bones and where

22 cranial and facial bones

10

Skull forms?

large cranial cavity and smaller cavities (including nasal cavity and orbits)

11

Paranasal sinuses

-Cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
~Mucous-lined cavities in the skull (filter and purify air) ~make the skull lighter
~Resonating chambers for speech

12

Mandible

only voluntary bone that we can move in the skull (other than the ear ossicles within the temporal bone)

13

The skull has how many cranial bones?

8

14

the skull has how many facial bones?

14

15

8 cranial bones purpose?

-protect brain & house ear ossicles
-muscle attachments for jaw, neck & facial muscles

16

14 facial bones purpose?

-protect delicate sense organs - smell, taste, vision
-support entrances to digestive and respiratory systems

17

8 cranial bones?

-frontal
-parietal (2)
-temporal (2)
-occipital
-sphenoid
-ethmoid

18

How many bones are in the human body?

206

19

How many bones are in the axial skeleton

80

20

Axial Skeleton

-lie along longitudinal axis
-skull, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, ear ossicles

21

Appendicular skeleton composed of

Upper & lower limbs and pelvic & pectoral girdles

22

Frontal bone

-forehead, roof of orbits (eye sockets), anterior cranial floor
-supraorbital margin and frontal sinus(right above eye)
~a "black eye" not a lot of muscle and facia right there

23

Parietal bone

sides and roof of cranial cavity

24

Temporal bone

-two temporal bones connected by the temporal squama Sutures
-zygomatic process forms part of arch (stereotypical cheek bone)
-external auditory meatus (opening to the outside sound comes through)
-mastoid process (behind ear flat)
-styloid process (right below mastoid process for muscular attachment)
-stylomastoid foramen (VII) sits between styloid and mastoid process
-Mandibular fossa (TMJ)
-Petrous portion (VIII)
-carotid foramen (carotid artery) supplies blood to the brain
-jugular foramen (jugular vein) passes back to the heart through this

25

Occipital bone

-foramen magnum (spinal cord passes through connecting to the brain)
-occipital condyles (skull is going to sit on spinal cord)
-external occipital protuberance (bump of knowledge)
attachment for ligament nuchae (allows skull movement and supports spinal cord)
-superior (higher than inferior) and inferior nuchal lines (important for muscular and facia attachments)

26

Sphenoid bone (butterfly bone)

-Base of skull
(articulates with a number of bones)
-Pterygoid (p is silent) processes are attachment sites for jaw muscles
-Pterygoid plates

27

Sella turcica

holds pituitary gland (superior portion of the sphenoid bone)

28

Ethmoid bone forms:

-part of the anterior portion of the cranial floor
-the medial wall of the orbits
-the superior portion of the nasal septum
-most of the superior side walls of the nasal cavity
-major superior supporting structure of the nasal cavity

29

Crista Galli (ethmoid bone) & perpendicular plate

attaches to the membrane that covers the brain

30

Lateral masses of the ethmoid bone contain what

ethmoid sinuses (for filtering air, warm air, making skull lighter)

31

14 facial bones

-Nasal (2)
-Mandible (1) only voluntary
-Inferior nasal conchae (2)
-Maxillae (2)
-Lacrimal (2)
-Zygomatic (2)
-Palatine (2)
-Vomer (1)

32

Maxillary Bones

-floor of orbit (eye socket), floor of nasal cavity or hard palate (hard portion of upper mouth)
-maxillary sinus (filtering air, making skull lighter)
-alveolar processes hold upper teeth
-cleft palate is lack of union of maxillary bone

33

Zygomatic bones

-Cheekbones
-form lateral wall of orbit along with sphenoid bones
-Part of zygomatic arch along with part of temporal

34

Lacrimal and Inferior Nasal Conchae

-Lacrimal bones
~part of medial wall of orbit
~lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac
-Inferior nasal concha or turbinate (not part of ethmoid)

35

Mandible bone landmarks

-Body (main portion), angle ("jaw bone") & rami (portion sits just anterior and a little inferior to ears)
-Condylar & coronoid processes (help form TMJ with temporal bone)
-Alveolar processes for lower teeth
-Mandibular & mental foramen (nerves are going to pass through)

36

TMJ (temporomandibular joint)

-the mandible articulates with the temporal bone
-tmj syndrome is dysfunction of tmj
~causes appear to be numerous and the treatment is similarly variable

37

Palatine bone

- L-shaped bone: one end is back part of the hard palate, other end is part of orbit

38

Vomer Bone

-Posterior part of nasal septum

39

Nasal Septum bone

-Divides nasal cavity into left and right sides
-formed by over, perpendicular plate of ethmoid and septal cartilage

40

Deviated Septum

-Does not line the midline
~developmental abnormality or trauma

41

The orbits (eye sockets)

-contain the eyeballs and associated structures and are formed by 7 bones of the skull
-5 important foramina are associated with each orbit

42

Bones of the orbit

Frontal
Sphenoid
Zygomatic
Maxilla
Lacrimal
Ethmoid
Palatine

43

Bones of the roof of orbit

Frontal and sphenoid bones

44

Bones of the lateral wall of orbit

zygomatic ad sphenoid

45

Bones of floor of orbit

maxilla, zygomatic, and sphenoid

46

Bones of the medial wall of orbit

maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid and sphenoid

47

Orbital fissures and optic foramen

allow optic nerves to pass through as well as other nerves to innervate muscles of the face to allow for expression and to move the eye ball as well as provide sensation to the area

48

Foramina of the skull (5)

-Foramen magnum
-Optic foramen
-Mandibular foramen
-Carotid Foramen
-Stylomastoid foramen

49

Foramen Magnum

-Occipital bone
-Sits inferior part of the brain connects with spinal cord (CN (cranial nerve11) XI)
-Vertebral and spinal arteries pass through this opening (supply blood to crucial structures in the brain and spinal cord)

50

Optic foramen

-Sphenoid Bone
-Optic nerve (II) & ophthalmic artery (important for the health of the eye)

51

Mandibular foramen

-Mandible

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Carotid foramen

-Temporal bone (between greater and lesser wings)
-Internal carotid artery (supplying blood to brain)

53

Stylomastoid foramen

-Temporal bone (between mastoid and styloid processes - behind ears)
-Cranial Nerve (CN) VII (7) (facial nerve - allows facial expression) and stylomastoid artery

54

Sutures include (4):

Coronal
Sagittal
Lambdoid
Squamous

55

Coronal Suture

unites the frontal and both parietal bones

56

Sagittal Suture

unites the two parietal bones

57

Lambdoid Suture

unites the two parietal bones to the occipital

58

Squamous Suture

unites the parietal and temporal bones

59

Which cranial bones contain the sinuses

Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Maxillae

60

When does Sinusitis occur?

when membranes of the paranasal sinuses become inflamed due to infection or allergy (pressure in skull - sinus infection)

61

Fontanels

-Dense connective tissue membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants
~remain unossified at birth but closes early in a Childs life

62

2 major functions of fontanels?

1.) enables the fetal skull to modify its size and shape as it passes through the birth canal
2.) permit rapid growth of the brain during infancy

63

Major fontanels?

Anterior, Posterior, Anterolaterals, and Posterolaterals

64

Anterior fontanel is located where?

between frontal and parietal (future coronal suture)

65

Posterior fontanel is located where?

between parietal and occipital bone

66

Posterolateral fontanel

between the temporal, parietal and occipital bones

67

Anterolateral fontanel

sits between a number of bones (future squamous suture)

68

Hyoid Bone

- U-shaped single bone
-Throat area
- No bony articulations
~suspended by ligament and muscle from skull (unique)
-Supports the tongue & provides attachment for tongue, neck and pharyngeal muscles

(floating important for muscular attachments to assist with swallowing)