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1

depressions and openings purpose?

-Form joints
-Allow passage of soft tissue

2

processes purpose?

-Help to form joints
-Serve as attachment sites for connective tissue

3

5 different types of depressions and openings?

-Foramen
-Notch
-Meatus
-Fossa
-Sulcus

4

Foramen

Opening through which blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments pass

5

Notch

Indentation at bone’s edge

6

Meatus

Enters, but does not pass through structure

7

Fossa

Shallow depression

8

Sulcus

Furrow along a bone surface that accommodates a blood vessel, nerve, or tendon

9

Three processes that form joints

-Condyle
-Facet
-Head

10

Condyle (process that forms joints)

Large, round protuberance at the end of a bone

11

Facet (process that forms joints)

Smooth flat articular surface

12

Head (process that forms joints)

Rounded articular projection supported on the neck of a bone (i.e. head of the femur)

13

Six processes that form attachment points

-Crest
-Epicondyle
-Spinous process
-Trochanter
-Tubercle
-Tuberosity

14

Crest (process that forms attachment point)

Prominent ridge or elongated projection (i.e. iliac crest of hip bone)

15

Epicondyle (process that forms attachment point)

Projection above a condyle (i.e. medial epicondyle of elbow)

16

Spinous process (process that forms attachment point)

Sharp, slender projection (i.e. S.P. of vertebra)

17

Trochanter (process that forms attachment point)

Very large projection (i.e. greater trochanter of femur)

18

Tubercle (process that forms attachment point)

Small, rounded projection (i.e greater tubercle of the humerus)

19

Tuberosity (process that forms attachment point)

Large, rounded, usually roughened projection (i.e. ischial)

20

4 Important muscular terms

-Origin
-Insertion
-Innervation
-Action

21

Origin (important muscular term)

Placement of muscle attachment for the stationary bone

22

Insertion (important muscular term)

Placement of the muscle attachment for the bone it moves

23

Innervation (important muscular term)

The nervous supply to a muscle

24

Action (important muscular term)

The motion the muscle creates

25

Plane

-a two-dimensional surface defined by 3 points not on the same line
-Describes relative movements of body parts

MOTION OCCURS "IN A PLANE"

26

Axis

-a line passing
perpendicular through a plane
-Describes the lines around which these motions occur

MOTION OCCURS "ABOUT AN AXIS"

27

What are the 3 anatomical planes of motion?

-Sagittal
-Frontal (coronal)
-Transverse

28

Sagittal Plane (general)

Midsagittal or median
Divides into equal right and left sides
(between legs)

29

Frontal (coronal) plane

Divides into anterior and posterior portions
(Front and Back aka cut yo booty off)

30

Transverse Plane

Cross-sectional/horizonntal
Divides the body into superior (above) and inferior (below) portions
(cut your legs off)

31

Sagittal Plane

Divides body into UNEQUAL left and right sides

32

Mid-sagittal plane

Divides body into EQUAL left and right sides

33

Anatomical Axes of Motions are what to anatomical planes?

Perpendicular

34

What are the three anatomical axes of motion?

-Antero-posterior (AP) Axis
-Mediolateral Axis
-Longitudinal Axis

35

Which plane is the antero-posterior axis perpendicular to?

Frontal Plane

36

Which plane is the Mediolateral axis perpendicular to?

Sagittal Plane

37

Which plane is the Longitudinal axis perpendicular to?

Transverse Plane

38

What are the two basic joint actions in that occur within the sagittal plane?

Flexion & Extention

39

Flexion?

Making a decrease in angle

40

Extension?

Making an increase in angle

41

What are the two basic joint actions that occur in the frontal plane?

Abduction (ABD) & Adduction (ADD)

42

Abduction?

-Moving away from midline of the body
-To “take away”

43

Adduction?

-Moving towards the midline of body
-To “add”

44

What are the two basic joint actions that occur in the transverse plane?

Medial (Internal) Rotation & Lateral (external) Rotation

45

Medial (Internal) Rotation

Anterior surface moves toward midline

46

Lateral (External) Rotation

Anterior surface moves away from midline

47

What are two basic joint actions that occur in the forearm?

Supination & Pronation

48

Supination?

Rotating hand/forearm laterally
“hold the soup”

49

Pronation

Rotating hand/forearm medially
“pour the soup”

50

What are two basic joint actions that occur in the Wrist?

Radial flexion or deviation (ABD)
&
Ulnar flexion or deviation (ADD)

51

Radial flexion or deviation (ABD)

Move wrist outwards or away from midline of body
Deviate towards radius

52

Ulnar flexion or deviation (ADD)

Move wrist inwards or towards the midline of body
Deviate towards ulna

53

What are four basic joint actions that occur in the Ankle? (2 pairs)

Plantarflexion & Dorsiflexion

Inversion & Eversion

54

Plantarflexion

Point toes/foot downward
“plant the foot”

55

Dorsiflexion

Point toes/foot upward
“foot off the gas pedal”

56

Inversion

Movement of sole of foot inward

57

Eversion

Movement of sole of foot outward

58

What are four basic joint actions that occur in the Scapula? (3 pairs)

Protraction & Retraction

Upward Rotation & Downward Rotation

Elevation & Depression

59

Protraction

Moving forward on plane parallel to ground
“punch”

60

Retraction

Moving backward on plane parallel to ground
“start lawn mower”

61

Upward Rotation

shoulder presses?

62

Downward Rotation

lat pull downs

63

Elevation

to move upward

64

Depression

to move downward

65

Basic joint action - Circumduction

-Latin meaning “around”
-Combination of flexion/extension and abduction/adduction