1b Variety of Living Organisms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1b Variety of Living Organisms Deck (23):
1

What does eukaryotic mean? (2)

- Has membrane bound organelles.
- E.g. Animal Cells

2

What does prokaryotic mean? (2)

- No membrane bound organelles.
- E.g. bacteria

3

What are the five organelles found in both animal and plant cells? (5)

- Nucleus
- Cell membrane
- Cytoplasm
- Mitochondria
- Ribosomes

4

What is the function of the nucleus? (2)

- Contains genetic material which controls cell's activities.
- Surrounded by its own membrane.

5

What is the function of the cell membrane? (1)

- Controls what substances enter and exit the cell.

6

What is the function of the cytoplasm? (1)

- A gel-like substance where chemical reactions take place.

7

What is the function of mitochondria? (1)

- Where aerobic respiration takes place.

8

What is the function of ribosomes? (1)

- Where protein synthesis occurs.

9

What three organelles are found in plant cells only? (3)

- Vacuoles
- Chloroplasts
- Cell walls.

10

What is the structure of viruses? Unicellular or Multicellular? (3)

- Protein coat surrounding DNA or RNA.
- Non-living.
- Unicellular

11

What is the structure of bacteria? Unicellular or Multicellular? (3)

- Has cell walls
- No distinct nucleus; have a circular chromosome (nucleoid) and often plasmids (extra bits of DNA)
- Unicellular

12

What is the structure of protoctists? Unicellular or Multicellular? (3)

- Varies
- Can be similar to animal cells (protazoa, amoeba) or plant cells (algae, chlorella)
- Can be either, mostly unicellular.

13

What is the structure of fungi? Unicellular or Multicellular? (4)

- Cell wall made of chitin.
- Contains usual organelles: cytoplasm, cell membrane etc
- Hyphae form a network called mycelium.
- Can be either.

14

Of viruses, bacteria, protctists, and fungi, which are pathogenic (or sometimes)? (2)

- Always: Viruses
- Sometimes: Bacteria, protoctists, fungi

15

Name two examples of viruses. (2)

- HIV, causing AIDS.
- Cold virus.
- Measles.
- Influenza.

16

Name two examples of bacteria. (2)

- Pneumococcus.
- Lactobaccilus bulgaricus.

17

Name two examples of protoctists. (2)

- Chlorella
- Algae
- Amoeba

18

Name two examples of fungi. (2)

- Mushrooms.
- Yeast
- Mucor

19

What is the way fungi feed? (3)

- By saprotrophic nutrition.
- The use of digestive enzymes to extraceullarly break down dead matter.
- Fungi have hyphae which form a network called mycelium.

20

What are the five kingdoms? (5)

- Plants
- Animals
- Fungi
- Protoctists
- Bacteria

21

What does multicellular mean? (1)

- Contains many cells

22

How are carbohydrates stored in:
a) animals
b) plants
c) fungi (3)

a) glycogen
b) starch
c) glycogen

23

Define pathogen (1)

- A micro-organism which causes disease.