2b Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

IGCSE Biology > 2b Cell Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2b Cell Structure Deck (10):

What is a zygote? (1)

The single cell formed after fertilisation occurs.


How is a 16 cell embryo formed? (2)

- By mitosis (cell division)
- 1 cell > 2 cells > 4 cells > 8 cells > 16 cells


What is differentiation? (1)

- The process whereby cells become specialised, e.g. nerve cells.


What is a stem cell? (1)

- A cell which has the potential to divide many times while remaining undifferentiated/unspecialised.


What are the two types of stem cell? (2)

- Embryonic
- Adult


What are embryonic stem cells? (2)

- Found in early stage development of embryos.
- Can differentiate into any type of cell.


What are adult stem cells? (3)

- Found in particular tissues
- such as bone marrow, lining of small intestine and skin,
- which are unable to differentiate into any type of cell.


What is stem cell therapy? (2)

- Use of stem cells to treat disease
- E.g. bone marrow transplants


Describe the use of stem cell therapy in the treatment of leukaemia (3)

- Leukemia is a type of blood cancer.
- Chemotherapy destroys both healthy and cancerous cells.
- Stem cell therapy supplies stem cells that can divide and differentiate and therefore replace cells lost in chemotherapy.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of embryonic stem cell therapy? (3)

- Ability to differentiate into any type of cell; Not limited.
- Could be used to treat Parkinson's disease, diabetes etc
- Ethical issues with use as they come from unborn foetuses.