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Flashcards in 2 Deck (38):
1

Ketoses

Fructose
Ribulose

Dihydroxyacetone

2

Lipid soluble vitamins

DEKA

Not stored

3

Vit A

-Spinach, carrots, dark vegetables, yellow vegetables
-Vit A derivative retinol is found in liver, cod liver oil, dairy products, eggs

Helps w/:
Antioxidant, visiual pigment, differentiation epithelial cells, treat acne

4

Vit E

Protects against ROS (antioxidant) & LDL's (low density lipoproteins)

5

Aldoses

Glucose
Galactose

6

Fuel stores

Lipid: 1 g=9kcal energy
Protein 1g=4 kcal
Carbs 1g=4kcal

7

Glut 1

Ubiquitous (found in RBC's, brain, cornea, placenta)

8

Glut 2

Main transporter in liver and pancreas

9

Glut 3

Neurons

10

Glut 4

Skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, heart. Regulated by insulin

11

Vit K

Blood coagulation/clotting

12

Water soluble vitamins

Vit B, C, biotin, folate

Not stored

13

Vit B2

(riboflavin)

FMN, FAD

14

Collagen AA's

Glycine is common

15

Vit B3

(niacin)

NAD+, NADP+

16

Vit B1

(thiamine)

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)

17

If pH (driving speed) is above pKa (speed to keep hat on)=

AA will get rid of proton

If pH (driving speed) is below pKa (speed to keep hat on)= AA will keep proton

18

Vit B5

(pantothenic acid)

CoA

19

Vit B6

(pyridoxine)

Pyridoxal phosphate

20

Vit B7

(biotin)

Used in pregnancy

21

Vit B9

(folic acid)

Helps convert carbs into glucose

22

Vit B12

(cobalamin)

23

COP1 & COP2

COP1: in-between stacks of golgi
COP2: ER--> golgi

24

Aspirin is what kind of inhibitor?

Aspirin is irreversible inhibitor of COX1/COX2 preventing prostaglandin synthesis

25

Concentration levels of Na, K etc

Everything high except K on outside of cell

26

Branched chain AA's

VIL

Valine, Isoleucine, leucine

27

E1

TPP (thymine pyrophosphate--> Vit B1, thiamine)

28

E2

Lipoic acid

29

E3

NADH & FADH

Needs Niacin (Vit B3) & Riboflavin (Vit B2)

30

Spur cells

RBC's breaking b/c too much cholesterol on membrane

31

Phosphotidyl serine

When on outside of membrane, it will kill cell

32

Problems with breaking down branched chain AA's

Need to be broken down by BCKD
Needs: CoA, FAD, Lipoic Acid, NAD, TPP

If no BCKD enzyme= Maple Syrup Urine disease

33

Wernicke/Beriberi

Deal with Vit B1

34

Aldoses

Ribose
Glucose
Mannose
Galactose

Erythrose
Glyceraldehyde

35

Gluconeogenesis

Under fasting conditions, stores of liver glycogen are sufficient to supply the brain w/ glucose for only 12 hours. Gluconeogenesis, the process by which glucose is synthesized from noncarbohydrate precursors such as pyruvate or lactate, amino acids, propionate, and glycerol, must take over

36

Gallbladder

Stores bile which breaks apart lipids, pumped from gallbladder into intestines to aid in digestion of lipids. The cholesterol in bile needs the bile salts to stay in solution and when it has to much cholesterol and too little bile salts, the cholesterol hardens into pebble-like solids called gallstones

37

Steroid hormones

1. Progesterone: gestation-supportive hormone
2. Aldosterone: increases Na+ and water retention and raises blood pressure
3. Cortisol: stress hormone. Increases gluconeogenesis and blood pressure, has anti-inflammatory effects
4. Testosterone: androgen, male sex hormone
5. Estradiol: estrogen, female sex hormone

38

Major role of kidneys

Regulate blood pH