Two methods for making ethanol?
Hydration of ethene. fermentation.
Explain the hydration of ethene.
Steam + ethene . with H3PO4 catalyst. at a high temp and moderate pressure. its a reversible reaction with only 5% being reacted, unreacted gasses get recycled into it.
C6H12O6 ----> 2CH3CH3OH +2CO2
yeast and 37 degrees.
Anerobic (no oxygen)
usefractional distilation to remove the ethanol.
Uses of ethanol?
Elthanol in alcoholic drinks.
Etanol as a fuel to increase the octane rating, which burns cleaner and is more environmentally friendly.
Ethanol is methalated spirts.
Used to make esters.
Uses of methanol?
Clean burning fuel, in high proformance racing cars.(also in bio diesel)
(its toxic soNOT IN DRINKS)
feedstock for the chemical industru , as its turned to metanal and etanoicacid.
WHy have alcohols got higher bps then anes, and enes?
they can hydrogen bond.
(lower volatitiy as well)
What is a sutable oxidising agent?
acidified dicromate ions , H+/Cr2O72-
(found in potassium dicromate)
Form a Keytone from a alcohol.
secondary alcohol, Reflux, Excess [O]
Form a carboxylic acid from a alcohol.
primary alcohol,Reflux, Excess [O]
Form a aldehyde from a alcohol.
primary alcohol,Distillation, 1:1 ration for [O] and alcohol, add one drop of [O] one at a time to the alcohol
acidified dicromate colour change ?
orange to green
Elimination (dehydration) of an alcohol.
Alcohol ---> alkene + water Heat, Concentrates sulfuric acid catalyst . Reflux
Alcohol + Carboxylic acid ---> ester +water reflux, conc sulfuric acid catalyst,warm.
The continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure the reaction takes place with out losing anything.
What way roud does the condenser get filled?
water in the bottom, out the top, in order to properly fill it.
What are esters used for?
adehesives, solvents, as flavourings and perfumes.
Hydration of ethene vs fermentation?
Hydration uses up unrenewable resourses- less sustainable, a higher temp is required
Fermentation- requres land be used to make it, less food, less rainforests, howver is more carbon neural becuase plants are photosinthisisng. can regrow plants when you need more.
loss of H or gain of O