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Flashcards in 2. Organic definitions Deck (35):
1

Functional group

The part of the organic molecule responsible for the chemical reactions.

2

Homologous series

a series of organic compounds with the same functional group , each with an extra CH2

3

Hydrocarbon

Molecule with just H and C

4

Parent chain

The longest continuous chain of carbon atoms is the parent chain.

5

saturated

hydrocarbon with only single bonds

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unsaturated

hydro carbon with at least 1 double bond

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alicyclic

hydrocarbon thats in a ring structure

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aliphatic

a straight chain hydrocarbon

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structural isomerism

molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structural arrangement of atoms

10

Addition polymerisation

The process in which unsaturated alkene monomers add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time to form a very long saturated molecular chain.

11

Addition reaction

A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule

12

Atom economy

= mr of desired/ total mr of all products x 100

13

Cis-trans -isomerism

A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non hydrogen group and hydrogen on each C of the C=C double bond. cis has the H atoms on the same size (Z)

14

E/z isomerism

a type of Stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond mar be arranged in space because of the restricted rotation,

15

electophile

Accepts a pair of e- to form a covelant bond

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Monomer

A small molecule that can combine to form a polymer

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biodegradable

a substance that is broken down naturally in the environment by living organisms

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% yield

actual amount of product/theoretical amount x 100

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Pi bond

The reactive part of the double bond, formed from laterally overlapped p-orbitals

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Sigma bond

The unreactive part of the double bond

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Polymer

A long molecule chain built up of monomers

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Stereoisomerism

Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but that differ only in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

23

Nucleophile

A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond

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radical

a radical is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valence electrons.

25

substitution reaction

A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom/group of atoms

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homolytic fission

The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals

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heterolytic fission

The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded e- going to one atom forming a cation and an anion

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primary alcohol

OH group bonded to a C which is bonded to 1 other alkyl group

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secondary alcohol

OH group bonded to a C which is bonded to 2 other alkyl group

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tertiary alcohol

OH group bonded to a C which is bonded to 3 other alkyl group

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volatility

The ease at which a liquid turns into a gas . Volatility increases as bp decreases

32

elimination reaction

The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.

33

reflux

The continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure the reaction takes place with out losing anything.

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oxidation

loss of H or addition of O

35

esterification

The reaction of an alcohol with a carbooxylic acid to produce an ester and water.